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Table 3 Association between the socio-demographic characteristics and DDS of older participants in the NHES-V, Thailand

From: Socio-demographic characteristics associated with the dietary diversity of Thai community-dwelling older people: results from the national health examination survey

Characteristics Unadjusted   Adjusteda  
  β (95%CI) P -value** β (95%CI) P -value**
Sex
  Male Reference   Reference  
  Female -0.19 (-0.32, -0.06) 0.007 0.03 (-0.11, 0.17) 0.671
Age (year)
  60 - 74 Reference   Reference  
  75- 84 -0.43 (-0.63, -0.22) <0.001 -0.14 (-0.36, 0.07) 0.177
  ≥ 85 -0.61 (-0.96, -0.26) 0.002 -0.30 (-0.69, 0.09) 0.119
Highest educational level
  No formal education Reference   Reference  
  Primary education 1.00 (0.77, 1.23) <0.001 0.76 (0.52, 1.03) <0.001
  Secondary education or higher 1.97 (1.70, 2.23) <0.001 1.37 (1.04, 1.70) <0.001
Wealth index
  Poorest Reference   Reference  
  Poor 1.05 (0.79, 1.32) <0.001 0.97 (0.70, 1.24) <0.001
  Average 0.47 (0.25, 0.70) <0.001 0.30 (0.06, 0.54) 0.016
  Rich 0.78 (0.56, 1.01) <0.001 0.56 (0.32, 0.80) <0.001
  Richest 1.29 (1.05, 1.53) <0.001 0.81 (0.55, 1.06) <0.001
Living condition
  Living with others Reference   Reference  
  Living alone - 0.51 (- 0.75, - 0.27) <0.001 - 0.27 (- 0.53, - 0.00) 0.049
Residential area
  Rural Reference   Reference  
  Urban 0.54 (0.39, 0.69) <0.001 0.27 (0.10, 0.44) 0.004
  1. DDS dietary diversity score, NHES-V the fifth Thai National Health Examination Survey, β beta coefficient, 95% CI 95% confidence interval
  2. aModels included age, sex, highest educational level, wealth index, living alone, and residential area
  3. **P-values obtained from linear regression and adjusted for complex survey design by Svy command