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Table 3 Logit models for dental care use and for unmet access to dental care use – Ontarioa

From: Food insecurity, home ownership and income-related equity in dental care use and access: the case of Canada

Variables Has seen a dentist or orthodontist in the last 12 months No dental visits during the last 3 years No dental visits during the last 3 years- reason:Costs
Odds Bootstrap P > |z| Normal-based Odds Bootstrap P > |z| Normal-based Odds Bootstrap P > |z| Normal-based
Ratio Std. Err. z [95% Conf. Interval] Ratio Std. Err. z [95% Conf. Interval] Ratio Std. Err. z [95% Conf. Interval]
Health and lifestyles:
 Poor or very poor self-assessed dental health status (ref good or fair 1.07 0.0885 0.81 0.417 0.909 1.2579 0.82 0.0927 −1.72 0.086 0.6611 1.0277 0.60 0.1209 −2.54 0.011 0.4036 0.8898
 Brushe teeth at least twice a day 1.42 0.1368 3.66 0.000 1.178 1.7170 0.59 0.0751 −4.16 0.000 0.4572 0.7546 0.67 0.1279 −2.08 0.038 0.4652 0.9781
 Affected by diabetes (ref. no diabetes) 0.80 0.1077 −1.66 0.097 0.614 1.0411 1.32 0.2422 1.52 0.127 0.9234 1.8933 2.06 0.5377 2.77 0.006 1.2361 3.4368
 Obese (ref. Not obese) 0.91 0.0867 −1.02 0.306 0.7520 1.0936 0.87 0.1146 −1.08 0.282 0.6697 1.1240 0.95 0.1879 −0.27 0.789 0.6431 1.3983
 Current smoker (ref. Non-smoker or past smoker) 0.59 0.0645 −4.81 0.000 0.479 0.7337 1.65 0.2005 4.09 0.000 1.2962 2.0897 1.54 0.2762 2.41 0.016 1.0839 2.1890
 Regular drinker (ref. Non driker or, occasional drinker) 1.43 0.1327 3.87 0.000 1.193 1.7163 0.71 0.0799 −3.04 0.002 0.5695 0.8852 0.89 0.1598 − 0.65 0.513 0.6250 1.2644
Immigration and Ethnicity:
 Immigrant (ref. Local) 0.85 0.0976 −1.44 0.150 0.676 1.0617 1.00 0.1512 0.03 0.980 0.7472 1.3486 1.29 0.2929 1.13 0.259 0.8280 2.0144
 Nonwhite (ref. White) 0.85 0.1190 −1.18 0.238 0.643 1.1158 1.18 0.2130 0.93 0.352 0.8307 1.6830 0.57 0.1512 −2.13 0.033 0.3361 0.9561
 Aboriginal (ref. Non aboriginal) 0.72 0.1298 −1.81 0.070 0.508 1.0275 1.74 0.3921 2.48 0.013 1.1234 2.7105 1.24 0.3385 0.77 0.441 0.7218 2.1134
Education level:
 Low education secondary (ref.) 0.62 0.0881 −3.35 0.001 0.472 0.8217 1.23 0.1984 1.27 0.203 0.8950 1.6857 0.98 0.2412 −0.09 0.926 0.6025 1.5852
 Education level high 1.20 0.1188 1.8 0.072 0.984 1.4524 0.67 0.0771 −3.47 0.001 0.5364 0.8413 1.00 0.1925 0.01 0.993 0.6874 1.4597
Material resources:
 Living in a house rented (ref. home owner) 0.63 0.0592 −4.96 0.000 0.520 0.7534 1.73 0.2262 4.21 0.000 1.3410 2.2374 2.14 0.3960 4.09 0.000 1.4845 3.0710
Food insecurity:
 (ref. not food insecure) Moderately food insecure 0.69 0.1098 −2.31 0.021 0.509 0.9466 1.46 0.2891 1.89 0.058 0.9869 2.1491 1.65 0.4458 1.86 0.063 0.9737 2.8038
 Highly Food insecure 0.66 0.1543 −1.78 0.076 0.418 1.0438 1.99 0.5477 2.51 0.012 1.1640 3.4162 2.28 0.7238 2.59 0.009 1.2233 4.2472
 Has dental insurance (ref. no dental insurance) 3.67 0.3259 14.62 0.000 3.081 4.3647 0.27 0.0322 −10.94 0.000 0.2100 0.3375 0.09 0.0184 −12.03 0.000 0.0633 0.1371
 Equivalized personal Income (log) 1.16 0.0652 2.73 0.006 1.0438 1.2999 0.86 0.0410 −3.27 0.001 0.7785 0.9393 0.84 0.0442 −3.26 0.001 0.7609 0.9343
Statistics:
 k 28.00       28.00       28.00      
 chi2 585.18       528.80       388.27      
 p 0.00       0.00       0.00      
  Observed Bootstrap Normal-based Observed Bootstrap Normal-based Observed Bootstrap Normal-based
Coef. Std. Err. z P > |z| [95% Conf. Interval] Coef. Std. Err. z P > |z| [95% Conf. Interval] Coef. Std. Err. z P > |z| [95% Conf. Interval]
CN −0.003 0.0007 −4.00 0.000 −0.0044 −0.0015 0.024 0.0028 8.33 0.000 0.0181 0.0293 0.027 0.0041 6.46 0.000 0.0185 0.0346
CM 0.113 0.0050 22.70 0.000 0.1036 0.1232 −0.362 0.0215 −16.85 0.000 −0.4044 −0.3201 − 0.415 0.0412 −10.07 0.000 −0.4959 − 0.3343
HI 0.116 0.0050 23.37 0.000 0.1066 0.1261 −0.386 0.0213 − 18.16 0.000 −0.4276 −0.3443 − 0.442 0.0405 −10.91 0.000 −0.5209 − 0.3623
  1. Bootstrap Normal-based standard errors. Data source: CCHS 2013–2014
  2. aEstimates obtained after controlling for age, sex, marital status, urbanization level, occupational status