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Table 2 Logit estimates for the probability of using dental visits by geographic areas (Odds Ratios)a

From: Food insecurity, home ownership and income-related equity in dental care use and access: the case of Canada

Variables Ontario Atlantic Quebec
Odds Ratio z P > |z| [95% Conf. Interval] Odds Ratio z P > |z| [95% Conf. Interval] Odds Ratio z P > |z| [95% Conf. Interval]
Health and lifestyles:
 Poor or very poor self-assessed health status (ref good or fair) 0.74 −2.6 0.009 0.598 0.928 0.90 −1 0.341 0.718 1.121 0.86 −1.2 0.221 0.667 1.098
 Affected by diabetes (ref. no diabetes) 0.83 −1.6 0.107 0.657 1.042 0.86 −1.3 0.191 0.684 1.079 0.75 −2.3 0.023 0.580 0.960
 Obese (ref. Not obese) 0.92 −1 0.325 0.784 1.084 0.81 −2.2 0.030 0.674 0.980 0.93 −0.7 0.477 0.751 1.143
 Current smoker (ref. Non-smoker or past smoker) 0.56 −5.7 0.000 0.461 0.684 0.64 −3.7 0.000 0.503 0.811 0.67 −3.9 0.000 0.544 0.818
 Regular drinker (ref. Non-drinker or, occasional drinker) 1.48 4.68 0.000 1.257 1.748 1.59 5.3 0.000 1.340 1.888 1.66 5.27 0.000 1.374 2.002
Immigration and Ethnicity:
 Immigrant (ref. Local) 0.78 −2.4 0.018 0.629 0.956 0.93 −0.3 0.756 0.586 1.475 0.89 −0.7 0.478 0.643 1.229
 Non-white (ref. White) 0.87 −1.1 0.291 0.678 1.124 0.77 −0.9 0.390 0.421 1.402 0.87 −0.7 0.459 0.594 1.266
 Aboriginal (ref. Non aboriginal) 0.86 −0.9 0.368 0.613 1.199 0.92 −0.5 0.597 0.682 1.246 0.86 −0.7 0.475 0.562 1.309
 Education level low education secondary (ref.) 0.49 −6 0.000 0.390 0.619 0.50 −5.5 0.000 0.388 0.637 0.54 −5.2 0.000 0.433 0.685
 Education level high 1.21 2.02 0.044 1.005 1.455 1.16 1.59 0.112 0.965 1.402 1.19 1.8 0.072 0.985 1.428
Material resources:
 Living in a house rented (ref. home owner) 0.57 −6.2 0.000 0.480 0.683 0.79 −2 0.044 0.629 0.994 0.73 −2.9 0.004 0.588 0.903
Food insecurity:
 No Food insecurity (ref.) Moderately food insecure 0.59 −3.3 0.001 0.435 0.810 0.60 −2.5 0.013 0.405 0.898 0.78 −1 0.297 0.491 1.243
 Highly Food insecure 0.73 −1.4 0.150 0.480 1.119 0.89 −0.3 0.733 0.454 1.742 0.40 −2.8 0.005 0.210 0.758
 Equivalized personal Income (log) 1.24 2.51 0.012 1.049 1.476 1.62 5.84 0.000 1.381 1.912 1.57 4.62 0.000 1.296 1.900
Geographical factors:
 Living in a rural area (ref. urban area) 0.77 −3.4 0.001 0.663 0.898 0.89 −1.4 0.159 0.760 1.046 0.71 −3.8 0.000 0.600 0.851
 Atlantic                
 Quebec                
 British_Col                
 Prairies                
 Territories                
Statistics:  
 N 16,546      6619      9650     
 k 26      26      26     
 chi2 624      451.223      524     
 p 0      0      0     
CN 0.001 0.81 0.416 −0.000 0.002 −0.001 0.00 −3.070 0.002 −0.01 0.012 7.2 0.000 0.006 0.011
CM 0.113 22.7 0.000 0.104 0.123 0.141 0.01 17.860 0.000 0.125 0.141 17.9 0.000 0.125 0.156
HI 0.113 22.8 0.000 0.103 0.123 0.144 0.01 18.440 0.000 0.129 0.129 16.8 0.000 0.113 0.148
Variables Prairies Territories B. Columbia
Odds Ratio z P > |z| [95% Conf. Interval] Odds Ratio z P > |z| [95% Conf. Interval] Odds Ratio z P > |z| [95% Conf. Interval]
Health and lifestyles:
 Poor or very poor self -assessed health status (ref good or fair) 0.62 −4 0.000 0.487 0.780 0.55 −2.5 0.014 0.344 0.887 1.04 0.22 0.823 0.743 1.452
 Affected by diabetes (ref. no diabetes) 1.14 0.91 0.365 0.861 1.502 0.99 −0 0.989 0.482 2.051 0.92 −0.4 0.682 0.631 1.352
 Obese (ref. Not obese) 0.94 −0.6 0.527 0.780 1.136 1.03 0.22 0.826 0.767 1.394 0.69 −2.7 0.008 0.532 0.907
 Current smoker (ref. Non-smoker or past smoker) 0.61 −4.6 0.000 0.492 0.753 0.87 −0.7 0.492 0.593 1.286 0.61 −3.2 0.002 0.448 0.828
 Regular drinker (ref. Non-drinker or, occasional drinker) 1.25 2.49 0.013 1.049 1.495 1.27 1.35 0.179 0.895 1.813 1.26 2.1 0.036 1.015 1.554
Immigration and Ethnicity:
 Immigrant (ref. Local) 0.95 −0.4 0.665 0.741 1.211 1.24 0.64 0.522 0.637 2.427 0.84 −1.5 0.136 0.662 1.058
 Non-white (ref. White) 0.74 −1.8 0.070 0.541 1.025 0.56 −1.6 0.102 0.274 1.124 0.95 −0.3 0.744 0.722 1.262
 Aboriginal (ref. Non aboriginal) 0.64 −2.5 0.014 0.450 0.915 0.94 −0.3 0.770 0.613 1.438 1.32 1.04 0.296 0.786 2.202
 Education level low education secondary (ref.) 0.71 −2.6 0.010 0.547 0.922 1.48 1.27 0.203 0.810 2.689 0.47 −4.8 0.000 0.345 0.639
 Education level high 1.18 1.79 0.074 0.984 1.414 1.49 1.92 0.054 0.992 2.248 1.26 1.88 0.060 0.990 1.593
Material resources:
 Living in a house rented (ref. home owner) 0.77 −2.6 0.010 0.626 0.938 0.69 −1.9 0.057 0.469 1.012 0.65 −3.3 0.001 0.506 0.845
Food insecurity:
 No Food insecurity (ref.) Moderately food insecure 0.74 −1.4 0.168 0.479 1.137 0.68 −1.3 0.208 0.374 1.239 n.a     
 Highly Food insecure 0.78 −0.6 0.566 0.329 1.839 1.22 0.41 0.680 0.477 3.106 n.a     
 Equivalized personal Income (log) 1.34 4.07 0.000 1.162 1.535 1.38 2.83 0.005 1.103 1.714 1.38 3.71 0.000 1.163 1.631
Geographical factors:
 Living in a rural area (ref. urban area) 0.93 −0.7 0.499 0.757 1.145 1.09 0.38 0.703 0.712 1.655 0.70 −2.7 0.007 0.546 0.908
Statistics:
 N 10,758      1298      6269     
 k 26      26      26     
 chi2 267      67.056      229.3     
 p 0      0      0     
CN 0.012 6.48 0.000 0.005 0.009 0.000 −0.1 0.960 −0 0.003 0.002 2.21 0.027 0.002 0.004
CM 0.105 12.9 0.000 0.089 0.121 0.123 6.14 0.000 0.084 0.163 0.095 11.4 0.000 0.079 0.112
HI 0.098 12 0.000 0.076 0.108 0.123 5.39 0.000 0.071 0.152 0.093 11.1 0.000 0.077 0.11
Variables Canada  
Odds Ratio z P > |z| [95% Conf. Interval]
Health and lifestyles:
 Poor or very poor self assessed health status (ref good or fair) 0.79 −3.8 0.000 0.703 0.892
 Affected by diabetes (ref. no diabetes) 0.87 −2.2 0.026 0.765 0.983
 Obese (ref. Not obese) 0.89 −2.6 0.010 0.810 0.972
 Current smoker (ref. Non smoker or past smoker) 0.62 −9 0.000 0.560 0.689
 Regular drinker (ref. Non driker or, occasional drinker) 1.43 7.88 0.000 1.311 1.568
Immigration and Ethnicity:
 Immigrant (ref. Local) 0.88 −2 0.042 0.773 0.995
 Nonwhite (ref. White) 0.84 −2.2 0.031 0.720 0.984
 Aboriginal (ref. Non aboriginal) 0.84 −1.9 0.053 0.706 1.003
 Education level low education secondary (ref.) 0.54 −9.7 0.000 0.482 0.615
 Education level high 1.23 4.37 0.000 1.121 1.351
Material resources:
 Living in a house rented (ref. Home owner) 0.66 −8 0.000 0.599 0.732
Food insecurity:
 No Food insecurity (ref.) Moderately food insecure 0.66 −3.9 0.000 0.540 0.816
 Highly Food insecure 0.64 −3.1 0.002 0.475 0.850
 Equivalized personal Income (log) 1.35 5.7 0.000 1.219 1.501
Geographical factors:
 Living in a rural area (ref. urban area) 0.80 −5.1 0.000 0.729 0.868
Region:
 Ontario (ref.)      
 Atlantic 0.59 −9.6 0.000 0.53 0.657
 Quebec 0.62 −8.6 0.000 0.56 0.695
 British_Col 0.81 −3.4 0.001 0.715 0.915
 Prairies 0.54 −12 0.000 0.486 0.599
 Territories 0.83 −1.6 0.121 0.65 1.051
Statistics:
 N 51,079     
 k 31     
 chi2 1903.7     
 p 0     
CN 0.004 10.7 0.000 0.004 0.005
CM 0.116 36.1 0.000 0.109 0.122
HI 0.111 35 0.000 0.105 0.117
  1. Bootstrap Normal-based standard errors. Data source: CCHS 2013–2014
  2. aEstimates obtained after controlling for age, sex, marital status, urbanization level, occupational status