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Table 1 Characteristics of studies that evaluated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Brasilian population

From: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults in the last 10 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study and Year Published Age Range Sample Size (male/female) City and region Population Study Design Criteria for Diagnosis of SM Overall
Prevalence of SM (%)
Prevalence of individual components of SM (%)
Gouveia et al. 2021 [26] 59.8 ± 19.7 910(341/569) Fonte Boa, Apuí, and Manaus – Amazonas state Adults and Older Adults – Urban cross-sectional study IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 47.5 (39.6 men, 52.2 women) Elevated waist circumference: 56.1; High blood pressures: 53.8; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 30.9; Low HDL cholesterol: 39.8; High triglyceride: 37.2
Oliveira et al. 2020 [27] 45.6 8199 Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde
de 2013
Urban analytical cross-sectional study IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 38.4 (34.6 men, 41.8 women) Elevated waist circumference: 65.5; High blood pressures: 32.3; Elevated fasting blood glucose: N/A; Low HDL cholesterol: 49.4; High triglyceride: N/A
Santos et al. 2020 [28] 25—65 years 818 (349/469) Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state Urban cross-sectional
population-based study
IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 30.9 (36.1 men; 27.2 women) Elevated waist circumference: 50.1; High blood pressures: 66.5; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 16.8; Low HDL cholesterol: 37.4; High triglyceride: 20.2
do Vale Moreira et al. 2020 [6]  ≥ 20 years 714 (242/472) Pindoretama, Ceará state Urban cross-sectional
population-based study
Modified NCEP, IDF and JIS JIS = 36.1
IDF = 35.1
NCEP = 29.5
N/A
Moreira et al. 2020 [30] 50.1 ± 5.5 419 (women) Parnamirim—Rio Grande do Norte state middle-aged women – Urban cross-sectional study NCEP ATP III 65.6 Elevated waist circumference: 73.5; High blood pressures: 60.9; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 16.9; Low HDL cholesterol: 63.0; High triglyceride: 40.8
Carvalho et al. 2019 [29] 23.9 years 2017(946/1071) Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo state Urban cross-sectional study JIS 12.2 (18.9 men; 6.3 women) N/A
Luisi et al. 2019 [49]  ≥ 18 years 193(74/119) Tocantins state Quilombola communities observational
cross-sectional study
N/A 32.12 (17,6 men; 41,2 women) Elevated waist circumference: 58.0; High blood pressures: 41.5; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 35.2; Low HDL cholesterol: 52.3; High triglyceride: 15.5
Mulatinho et al. 2019 [31] 24—59 years 375(118/257) Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Pernambuco state Urban Cross-sectional study IDF 11.97 (3.72 men, 8.24 women) Elevated waist circumference: 70.4; High blood pressures: 0; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 19.15; Low HDL cholesterol: 21.01; High triglyceride: 19.68
Mussi et al. 2019 [48] 45 years 842(325/517) Guanambi, Bahia state Quilombola communities cross-sectional
population-based study
JIS 25.8 (20.9 men, 28.8 women) N/A
Ramires et al. 2018 [32]  ≥ 18 years 59,402 (25.920/ 33.482) Brazilian Adult Population: National Health Survey – 2013 Urban household-based cross-sectional IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 8,9 (7.5 men, 10.3 women) Elevated waist circumference: 65.2; High blood pressures: 40.7; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 7.1; Low HDL cholesterol: N/A; High triglyceride: N/A
França et al. 2016 [33] 42.2 ± 16.3 787 (188/599) Marajó Archipelago, Para state Urban cross-sectional
population-based
IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 34.1 (29.8 men, 35.4 women) Elevated waist circumference: 55.3; High blood pressures: 47.6; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 24.3; Low HDL cholesterol: 56.2; High triglyceride: 19.9
Bortoletto et al. 2016 [34] 54.5 ± 10.3 959 (426/533) Cambé, Paraná state  ≥ 40 years adults—Urban cross-sectional population-based IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 53.7 (48.4 men, 58 women) N/A
Soares et al. 2015 [45] 42.7 ± 19.1 932 (457/475) Indian reservations, Mato
Grosso state
Xavante indigenous cross‑sectional study IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 66.1 (55.6 men, 76.2 women) Elevated waist circumference: 92.6; High blood pressures: 41.4; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 76.4; Low HDL cholesterol: 86.6; High triglyceride: 71.15
Martini et al. 2014 [35]  ≥ 20 years 1112(468/644) Ourinhos, São Paulo state Urban observational
cross-sectional study
NCEP ATP III 24.1 (27.8 men, 20.3 women) Elevated waist circumference: 36.7; High blood pressures: 46.2; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 13.9; Low HDL cholesterol: 45.4; High triglyceride: 23.1
Moreira et al. 2014 [36] 55.0 ± 14.7 1369(667/702) Population in Brazil Urban cross-sectional, population based study NCEP ATP III 22.7 ( 23.3 men, 22.7 women) N/A
Pimenta et al. 2013 [40]  ≥ 18 years 491 (246/245) Virgem das Graças and Caju, in the rural areas of the municipalities of Ponto dos Volantes and Jequitinhonha, respectively, Minas Gerais state Rural cross-sectional population-based NCEP ATP III 14.9 (6.5 men, 23.3 women) Elevated waist circumference: 11.6; High blood pressures: 59.7; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 10.6; Low HDL cholesterol: 44.1; High triglyceride: 15.2
da Rocha et al. 2013 [41] 55.5 ± 13.23 73 (23/50) Village Pinhalzinho located at Planalto/Nonoai City, Rio Grande do Sul state Kaingang indigenous cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study NCEP ATP III 23.3 (47.1 men, 52.9 women) N/A
Dutra et al. 2012 [37]  ≥ 18 years 2130 (586/1544) Brasilia, Federal District Urban cross-sectional, population based study IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 32 (30.9 men, 33 women) N/A
Santos et al. 2012 [46] 38 ± 14.8 162 (98/64) Medial region of the Xingu Indigenous Park, Mato Grosso state Khisêdjê indigenous cross-sectional study IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 27.8 (19.4 men, 40.6 women) Elevated waist circumference:37.4; High blood pressures: 6.8; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 12.2; Low HDL cholesterol: 66.2; High triglyceride: 43.5
Gomes et al. 2012 [38] 57 ± 16 131 (54/77) Community of Mombuca/Guatapara, São Paulo state Japanese- Brazilian—Urban cross-sectional study IDF 35.8 (36.2 men, 63.8 women) Elevated waist circumference: N/A; High blood pressures: 46.6; Elevated fasting blood glucose: N/A; Low HDL cholesterol: 44.3; High triglyceride: 26.7
Gronner et al. 2011 [7] 30 – 79 years 1116 (396/720) São Carlos, São Paulo state Urban cross-sectional population-based study NCEP-ATP III and IDF ATP III 40.5 (36.1 men; 42.9 women)
IDF 48.1 (49.2 men; 47.5 women)
Elevated waist circumference: 56.2 (NCEP criteria) and 72.6 (IDF criteria); High blood pressures: 59.2; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 13.3; Low HDL cholesterol: 76.3; High triglyceride: 16.8
da Rocha et al. 2011 [42]  ≥ 40 years 150(67/83) Porto Alegre e Planalto/Nonoai, Rio Grande do Sul state Kaingang e Guarani indigenous cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical NCEP-ATPIII 65.3 (40.3 men / 85 women) Elevated waist circumference: 87.6; High blood pressures: 82.5; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 86; Low HDL cholesterol: 72,3; High triglyceride: 85.5
Oliveira et al. 2011 [47] 36 ± 1 606 (268/338) Jaguapiru village, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul state Indigenous population cross-sectional study IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 35.7 (26.1 men / 43.4 women) Elevated waist Circumference: 60.9; High blood pressures: 40.3; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 11.4; Low HDL cholesterol: N/A; High triglyceride: N/A
Anjos et al. 2011 [43] 32 years 82(33/49) Cândido de Abreu, state Paraná Kaingang Indigenous cross-sectional study NCEP-ATPIII 11(0 men, 18.4 women) Elevated waist Circumference: 37.8; High blood pressures: 26.8; Elevated fasting blood glucose: 9.4; Low HDL cholesterol: 13.4; High triglyceride: 11
Silva et al. 2011 A [39] 20 – 64 years 287 (73/214) Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, São Paulo state Urban descriptive and analytical study
cross-section
IDF 36.6 N/A
Silva et al. 2011 B [44] N/A 246 (91/155) Inhaumas, district of Santa Maria da Vitória, Bahia state Rural cross-sectional study NCEP-ATPIII 15.4 (11.9 men, 17.5 women) N/A
  1. IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/ IASO International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesit, IDF International Diabetes Federation, JIS Joint Interim Statement, NCEP-ATP III National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, N/A information not available