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Table 2 Characteristics of overweight/obesity, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome, and acute stroke studies included in the review

From: Assessment of the association between plant-based dietary exposures and cardiovascular disease risk profile in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Reference Study design Country, (province or region) N Sex Age Dietary
Dietary comparator Health
Motswagole 2020 [52] Cross-sectional Botswana, (nationwide) 1117 Only females Mean age:
37.7 ± 16.3 years
Vegetable and fruit pattern: vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and yellow/orange vegetables.
Fish and nut pattern: fish, nuts, and cruciferous vegetables.
Botswana traditional food pattern: insects (Phane), green leafy vegetables, legumes, and starches.
Fast food pattern
Refined carbohydrate pattern
Organ and red meat pattern
Overweight: BMI ≥25 kg/m2
Obesity: BMI ≥30 kg/m2
2019 [53]
Cross-sectional Ethiopia, (Southern Nations Nationalities Peoples) 524 230 males
294 females
Age range:
18 to 64 years
Fruits and vegetables frequency of consumption (e.g., 3–6 times/week) Sweets, fast foods, meat, and egg Overweight: BMI ≥25 kg/m2
Obesity: BMI ≥30 kg/m2
Gradidge 2018 [51] Cross-sectional South Africa, (Gauteng) 110 Only females Mean age:
21.4 ± 3.29 years
Weekly food purchases of vegetables, salads, and fruits Fish, meats, and fried foods Overweight: BMI ≥25 kg/m2
Obesity: BMI ≥30 kg/m2
de Villiers 2018 [41] Cross-sectional South Africa, (Western Cape) 175 20 males
155 females
Median age:
Men 36 years
Women 39 years
Frequency of consumption of fruit and vegetables, brown bread, legumes, and high fibre cereals (e.g., times/day) White bread and starches, High-fat foods, energy-dense snacks/items, and processed food Overweight: BMI ≥25 kg/m2
Obesity: BMI ≥30 kg/m2
2018 [47]
Cross-sectional Nigeria, Tanzania,
South Africa, and Uganda
738 294 males
444 females
Mean age:
Men 38.6 ± 13.4 years
Women 38.8 ± 13.0 years
Mixed dietary pattern:
vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, beans, tea, diet soda, fruit juice, fresh fish, cold cuts, salad dressing, canned fish, and refined grains.
Processed dietary pattern Overweight: BMI ≥25 kg/m2
Obesity: BMI ≥30 kg/m2
Otang-Mbeng 2017 [40] Cross-sectional South Africa, (Eastern Cape) 118 54 males
64 females
Age range:
21 to 70 years
Fruits and vegetables consumption (e.g., always) Fast food Overweight: BMI ≥25 kg/m2
Obesity: BMI ≥30 kg/m2
2002 [45]
Cross-sectional Tanzania, (Dar es Salaam, Tanga and Arusha) 545 259 males
286 females
Age range:
46 to 58 years
Green vegetables and coconut milk frequency of consumption (e.g., days/week) Whole milk, fish, and meat Obesity: BMI ≥30 kg/m2
(TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C > 5
Mvitu Muaka 2010 [50] Cross-sectional DRC, (Kinshasa) 244 106 males
138 females
Mean age:
48 ± 16 years
Frequency of consumption of Cassava leaves, dried red beans, Solo and Bitekuteku (e.g., “regular” and portion/day) MetS defined using: IDF criteria for Europids,
NCEP-ATP III definition, and
Modified IDF criteria specific for Central Africa.
O’Donnell 2016 [39] Case-control Mozambique, Nigeria,
South Africa, Sudan, and Uganda
1949 Cases: 503 males
470 females
Controls: Not reported
Mean age:
58.7 ± 15.2 years
Modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index Acute stroke cases were identified using a computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. The WHO criteria were used to define a stroke.
  1. N = Sample size