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Table 3 Factors associated with new HIV diagnosis among 613 male and 887 female symptomatic outpatients with HIV-negative or unknown status

From: Predictors of testing history and new HIV diagnosis among adult outpatients seeking care for symptoms of acute HIV infection in coastal Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis of intervention participants in a stepped-wedge HIV testing trial

Logistic regression for new HIV diagnosis outcome
Participant characteristics Males Females
  OR (95% CI) Wald p value OR (95% CI) Wald p value
Age
30–39 years [ref]   [ref]  
25–29 years 0.16 (0.03, 0.73) 0.018 1.50 (0.50, 4.45) 0.469
18–24 years 0.26 (0.08, 0.83) 0.023 0.44 (0.12, 1.52) 0.192
Marital statusa
Married [ref]   [ref]  
Single 0.30 (0.09, 0.96) 0.043 1.11 (0.42, 2.94) 0.840
Separated, Divorced, Widowed 3.88 (0.99, 15.32) 0.053 2.39 (0.64, 8.90) 0.196
Level of educationa
Higher education [ref]   [ref]  
Secondary 0.88 (0.18, 4.42) 0.878 1.24 (0.22, 6.82) 0.807
Primary and below 3.93 (1.08, 14.31) 0.038 3.38 (0.76, 15.03) 0.110
Religiona
Christian [ref]   [ref]  
Muslim 1.29 (0.40, 4.13) 0.665 0.67 (0.20, 2.33) 0.533
None 6.89 (1.38, 34.56) 0.019 - -
Source of incomea
Employed [ref]   [ref]  
Unemployed 0.82 (0.18, 3.87) 0.807 0.97 (0.38, 2.49) 0.955
Casual labourers 2.32 (0.81, 6.65) 0.119 0.84 (0.18, 3.90) 0.826
Having childrena
Yes [ref]   [ref]  
No 0.04 (0.01, 0.33) 0.002 0.48 (0.16, 1.44) 0.189
Time since last sexual activitya
 ≤ 6 weeks ago [ref]   [ref]  
More than 6 weeks ago 0.90 0.31, 2.59) 0.846 0.83 (0.28, 2.52) 0.746
Never had sex - - - -
Experience of IPVa,b
Never [ref]   [ref]  
Any IPV in the past 1 month 1.46 (0.18, 11.60) 0.718 - -
Any IPV > 1 month ago 0.89 (0.20, 3.99) 0.879 1.69 (0.64, 4.47) 0.289
Temperature
 < 37.5 [ref]   [ref]  
 ≥ 37.5 1.36 (0.43, 4.25) 0.597 2.12 (0.75, 5.93) 0.154
Reported fever 1.00 (0.38, 2.64) 0.994 2.96 (1.13, 7.78) 0.028
Reported fatigue 1.39 (0.39, 4.92) 0.607 0.50 (0.20, 1.28) 0.150
Reported body aches 0.55 (0.21, 1.44) 0.222 0.46 (0.19, 1.12) 0.088
Reported diarrhoea 1.53 (0.49, 4.78) 0.468 0.96 (0.28, 3.31) 0.944
Reported sore throat 1.54 (0.58, 4.12) 0.386 1.67 (0.68, 4.14) 0.266
Reported genital ulcers 1.85 (0.41, 8.39) 0.423 1.29 (0.29, 5.65) 0.740
Days since symptoms began
 ≤ 14 days 0.12 (0.04, 0.36)  < 0.001 0.39 (0.09, 1.74) 0.218
Time since last HIV test
 ≤ 1 year ago [ref]   [ref]  
More than 1 year ago 1.04 (0.30, 3.64) 0.950 1.81 (0.72, 4.55) 0.206
Never tested 3.72 (1.15, 12.00) 0.028 1.19 (0.15, 9.68) 0.873
Sexual risk behaviour characteristics among 414 male and 679 female participants sexually active in the past 6 weeks
Risk group
Sexually active general population [ref] 0.054 [ref])  
Sexually active key populationc 4.83 (0.98, 23.86)   - -
Self-reported number of sexual partners in the past 6 weeks
1 partner [ref]   [ref]  
 > 1 partner 2.55 (0.79, 8.23) 0.118 - -
Nature of relationship with the most recent sexual partner in the past 6 weeks
Spouse [ref]   [ref]  
Regular partnerd 0.39 (0.05, 3.25) 0.381 1.93 (0.65, 5.75) 0.238
Casual partner 1.72 (0.42, 7.07) 0.453 0.66 (0.08, 5.25) 0.696
One-time encounter 2.03 (0.39, 10.45) 0.398 - -
Condom use with the last sexual partnere
No [ref]   [ref]  
Yes 3.01 (0.93, 9.75) 0.065 2.28 (0.63, 8.21) 0.209
Age of last sexual partner in the past 6 weeks
About the same age [ref]   [ref]  
More than 5 years older 2.21 (0.25, 19.85) 0.479 1.10 (0.41, 3.00) 0.847
More than 5 years younger 1.65 (0.49, 5.49) 0.417 - -
HIV status of last sexual partner in the past 6 weeks
Partner status negative or unknown [ref]   [ref] 0.202
Partner status positive - - 3.95 (0.48, 32.60)  
Concurrency amongst the last three reported sexual partners
No [ref]   [ref]  
Yes 1.94 (0.51, 7.37) 0.332 - -
  1. Abbreviations: IPV intimate partner violence, OR odds ratio, ref reference category
  2. aData missing for 1 male participant due to corrupted Computer-Assisted Self-Interview software files
  3. bIncludes any experience of physical, emotional and sexual IPV
  4. cKey populations included, for males: sex workers (n = 13), men who have sex with men (n = 4) and people who inject drugs (n = 1), and for females: sex workers (n = 24)
  5. dRegular partner: long-term partner other than spouse
  6. eThose who could not recall using a condom at their last sexual encounter (n = 6, 3 males and 3 females) were included in the no condom use category