Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors associated with HIV testing history among 613 male and 887 female symptomatic outpatients

From: Predictors of testing history and new HIV diagnosis among adult outpatients seeking care for symptoms of acute HIV infection in coastal Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis of intervention participants in a stepped-wedge HIV testing trial

Multinomial logistic regression of HIV testing history outcome, with on-time testing (i.e., testing ≤ 1 year) as the reference category
  Males Females
  Tested > 1 year ago Never tested Tested > 1 year ago Never tested
Participant characteristics RRR (95% CI) Wald p value RRR (95% CI) Wald p value RRR (95% CI) Wald p value RRR (95% CI) Wald p value
Age
30–39 years [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
25–29 years 0.81 (0.52, 1.25) 0.341 0.90 (0.47, 1.74) 0.766 0.89 (0.61, 1.30) 0.540 6.5 (0.81, 52.10) 0.078
18–24 years 0.74 (0.48, 1.13) 0.163 1.91 (1.07, 3.40) 0.028 0.90 (0.64, 1.28) 0.566 18.49 (2.51, 136.33) 0.004
Marital statusa
Married [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
Single 1.01 (0.71, 1.43) 0.977 1.93 (1.18, 3.17) 0.009 1.06 (0.79, 1.43) 0.689 8.31 (3.93, 17.55)  < 0.001
Separated, Divorced, Widowed 0.83 (0.32, 2.18) 0.703 1.53 (0.45, 5.23) 0.495 0.94 (0.55, 1.58) 0.809 - -
Level of educationa
Higher education [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
Secondary 1.84 (1.21,2.80) 0.004 2.02 (1.11, 3.65) 0.021 1.08 (0.73, 1.59) 0.700 0.95 (0.48, 1.87) 0.881
Primary and below 1.57 (1.01, 2.44) 0.046 2.60 (1.44, 4.69) 0.001 1.13 (0.78, 1.62) 0.521 0.29 (0.13, 0.67) 0.003
Religiona
Christian [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
Muslim 1.53 (0.99, 2.34) 0.054 1.33 (0.76, 2.34) 0.321 0.89 (0.63, 1.24) 0.483 0.39 (0.15, 1.01) 0.053
None 0.37 (0.10, 1.39) 0.142 0.59 (0.13, 2.80) 0.508 2.56 (0.63, 10.32) 0.187 - -
Source of incomea
Employed [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
Unemployed 0.94 (0.58, 1.53) 0.799 1.53 (0.86, 2.75) 0.150 0.93 (0.69, 1.24) 0.616 1.87 (1.02, 3.45) 0.044
Casual labourers 1.74 (1.10, 2.77) 0.019 1.58 (0.85, 2.92) 0.146 1.19 (0.77, 1.84) 0.437 0.47 (0.11, 2.08) 0.319
Having childrena
Yes [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
No 0.92 (0.65, 1.30) 0.627 1.54 (0.95, 2.48) 0.079 1.19 (0.88, 1.60) 0.254 59.47 (14.25, 248.11)  < 0.001
Time since last sexual activitya
 ≤ 6 weeks ago [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
More than 6 weeks ago 1.59 (1.08, 2.34) 0.018 2.20 (1.35, 3.57) 0.002 1.44 (1.03, 2.02) 0.031 5.18 (2.84, 9.47)  < 0.001
Never had sex 1.80 (0.30, 10.88) 0.524 3.34 (0.46, 24.27) 0.232 2.12 (0.35, 12.76) 0.413 - -
Experience of IPVa, b
Never [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
Any IPV in the past 1 month 1.74 (0.71, 4.28) 0.230 1.23 (0.36, 4.18) 0.743 0.77 (0.40, 1.46) 0.419 - -
Any IPV > 1 month ago 1.04 (0.63, 1.72) 0.880 0.68 (0.32, 1.43) 0.312 0.70 (0.50, 1.00) 0.049 0.20 (0.06, 0.67) 0.009
Temperature
 < 37.5 [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
 ≥ 37.5 1.17 (0.74, 1.84) 0.503 1.53 (0.87, 2.69) 0.136 1.20 (0.81, 1.78) 0.359 1.10 (0.47, 2.55) 0.825
Reported fever 1.23 (0.87, 1.75) 0.240 1.19 (0.75, 1.88) 0.453 0.98 (0.74, 1.29) 0.884 1.61 (0.89, 2.89) 0.113
Reported fatigue 0.99 (0.66, 1.49) 0.971 1.27 (0.72, 2.24) 0.405 1.12 (0.80, 1.57) 0.497 0.66 (0.35, 1.25) 0.201
Reported body aches 0.93 (0.64, 1.34) 0.683 1.08 (0.66, 1.76) 0.765 1.31 (0.97, 1.77) 0.073 0.65 (0.36, 1.17) 0.153
Reported diarrhoea 0.78 (0.49, 1.23) 0.281 0.72 (0.38, 1.34) 0.297 0.88 (0.60, 1.28) 0.496 0.98 (0.44, 2.17) 0.959
Reported sore throat 1.04 (0.72, 1.51) 0.830 0.71 (0.42, 1.18) 0.188 0.95 (0.70, 1.29) 0.746 0.68 (0.33, 1.35) 0.262
Reported genital ulcers 0.78 (0.40, 1.53) 0.466 0.58 (0.21, 1.58) 0.288 0.79 (0.47, 1.31) 0.363 0.65 (0.20, 2.20) 0.493
Days since symptoms began
 ≤ 14 days 0.59 (0.29, 1.18) 0.136 0.68 (0.27, 1.66) 0.394 0.72 (0.37, 1.39) 0.326 1.94 (0.25, 14.83) 0.524
Sexual risk behaviour characteristics among 414 male and 679 female participants sexually active in the past 6 weeks
Risk group
Sexually active general population [ref] 0.731 [ref] 0.290 [ref]   [ref]  
Sexually active key populationc 1.21 (0.41, 3.51)   1.98 (0.56, 7.01)   0.75 (0.31, 1.78) 0.509 1.12 (0.14, 8.86) 0.916
Self-reported number of sexual partners in the past 6 weeks
1 partner [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
 > 1 partner 1.09 (0.67, 1.77) 0.727 0.37 (0.15, 0.92) 0.032 0.40 (0.20, 0.77) 0.006 0.82 (0.19, 3.62) 0.792
Nature of relationship with the most recent sexual partner in the past 6 weeks
Spouse [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
Regular partnerd 0.69 (0.41, 1.17) 0.167 0.90 (0.42, 1.92) 0.781 0.85 (0.56, 1.29) 0.448 2.97 (1.13, 7.79) 0.027
Casual partner 1.03 (0.56, 1.89) 0.922 1.47 (0.65, 3.33) 0.355 0.98 (0.58, 1.64) 0.933 2.74 (0.82, 9.16) 0.102
One-time encounter 1.04 (0.47, 2.26) 0.930 2.00 (0.77, 5.20) 0.157 0.68 (0.17, 2.76) 0.590 4.45 (0.49, 40.53) 0.185
Condom use with the last sexual partner e
No [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
Yes 0.68 (0.40, 1.16) 0.159 0.80 (0.38, 1.67) 0.548 0.76 (0.44, 1.33) 0.339 2.53 (0.89, 7.20) 0.082
Age of last sexual partner in the past 6 weeks
About the same age [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
More than 5 years older 2.18 (0.81, 5.87) 0.122 1.63 (0.40, 6.68) 0.498 1.11 (0.81, 1.52) 0.506 0.68 (0.29, 1.58) 0.369
More than 5 years younger 1.31 (0.85, 2.03) 0.218 1.30 (0.71, 2.39) 0.395 1.88 (0.50, 7.16) 0.352 - -
HIV status of last sexual partner in the past 6 weeks
Partner status negative or unknown [ref] 0.605 [ref] 0.403 [ref] 0.547 [ref] -
Partner status positive 0.74 (0.24, 2.31)   0.41 (0.05, 3.33)   1.42 (0.45, 4.45)   -  
Concurrency amongst the last three reported sexual partners
No [ref]   [ref]   [ref]   [ref]  
Yes 1.46 (0.83, 2.57) 0.186 0.46 (0.15, 1.37) 0.162 0.45 (0.21, 0.98) 0.044 0.60 (0.08, 4.63) 0.625
  1. Abbreviations: IPV intimate partner violence, ref reference category, RRR relative-risk ratio
  2. aData missing for 1 participant due to corrupted Computer-Assisted Self-Interview software files
  3. bIncludes any experience of physical, emotional and sexual IPV
  4. cKey populations included sex workers (n = 13), men who have sex with men (n = 4) and people who inject drugs (n = 1)
  5. dRegular partner: long-term partner other than spouse
  6. eThose who could not recall using a condom at their last sexual encounter (n = 6, 3 males, 3 females) were included in the no condom use category