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Table 1 Clinical, sociodemographic, and sexual behaviour characteristics of 1,500 study participants enrolled between December 2017 and March 2020

From: Predictors of testing history and new HIV diagnosis among adult outpatients seeking care for symptoms of acute HIV infection in coastal Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis of intervention participants in a stepped-wedge HIV testing trial

Characteristics Male
N (%)
Female
N (%)
P value
Age
30–39 years 179 (29.2) 192 (21.7) 0.001
25–29 years 194 (31.7) 260 (29.3)  
18–24 years 240 (39.2) 435 (49.0)  
Marital statusa
Married 256 (41.8) 503 (56.7)  < 0.001
Single 334 (54.5) 319 (36.0)  
Separated, Divorced, Widowed 22 (3.6) 65 (7.3)  
Level of educationa
Higher education 197 (32.1) 187 (21.1)  < 0.001
Secondary 223 (36.4) 303 (34.2)  
Primary and below 192 (31.3) 397 (44.8)  
Religiona
Christian 466 (76.0) 697 (78.6) 0.123
Muslim 132 (21.5) 181 (20.4)  
None 14 (2.9) 9 (1.0)  
Source of incomea
Employed 391 (63.8) 431 (48.6)  < 0.001
Unemployed 105 (17.1) 354 (39.9)  
Casual labourers 116 (18.9) 102 (11.5)  
Having childrena
Yes 261 (42.6) 585 (66.0)  < 0.001
No 351 (57.3) 302 (34.1)  
Time since last sexual activitya
 ≤ 6 weeks ago 414 (67.5) 679 (76.6) 0.001
More than 6 weeks ago 191 (31.2) 203 (22.9)  
Never had sex 7 (1.1) 5 (0.6)  
Experience of intimate partner violence (IPV)b
Never 506 (82.5) 673 (75.9) 0.007
Any IPV in the past 1 month 25 (4.1) 41 (4.6)  
Any IPV > 1 month ago 81 (13.2) 173 (19.5)  
Temperature
 < 37.5 499 (81.4) 764 (86.1) 0.014
 ≥ 37.5 114 (18.6) 123 (13.9)  
Reported fever 324 (52.9) 396 (44.6) 0.002
Reported fatigue 473 (77.2) 695 (78.4) 0.584
Reported body aches 410 (66.9) 603 (68.0) 0.655
Reported diarrhoea 104 (17.0) 138 (15.6) 0.466
Reported sore throat 193 (31.5) 255 (28.8) 0.255
Reported genital ulcers 42 (6.9) 71 (8.0) 0.406
Days since symptoms began
 ≤ 14 days 569 (92.8) 849 (95.7) 0.015
Time since last HIV test
 ≤ 1 year ago 260 (42.4) 473 (53.3)  < 0.001
More than 1 year ago 250 (40.8) 364 (41.0)  
Never tested 103 (16.8) 50 (5.6)  
Sexual behaviour among 414 male and 679 female participants sexually active in the past 6 weeksc
Risk group
Sexually active general population 396 (95.7) 655 (96.5) 0.497
Sexually active key populations’d 18 (4.4) 24 (3.5)  
Self-reported number of sexual partners in the past 6 weeks
1 partner 321 (77.5) 625 (92.1)  < 0.001
 > 1 partner 93 (22.5) 54 (8.0)  
Nature of relationship with the most recent sexual partner in the past 6 weeks
Spouse 219 (52.9) 473 (69.7)  < 0.001
Regular partnere 93 (22.5) 125 (18.4)  
Casual partner 65 (15.7) 71 (10.5)  
One-time encounter 37 (8.9) 10 (1.5)  
Condom use with the last sexual partnerf
No 332 (80.2) 615 (90.6)  < 0.001
Yes 82 (19.8) 64 (9.4)  
Age of last sexual partner in the past 6 weeks
About the same age 226 (54.6) 309 (45.5)  < 0.001
More than 5 years older 21 (5.1) 361 (53.2)  
More than 5 years younger 167 (40.3) 9 (1.3)  
HIV status of last sexual partner in the past 6 weeks
Partner status negative or unknown 400 (96.6) 667 (98.2) 0.089
Partner status positive 14 (3.4) 12 (1.8)  
Concurrency amongst the last three reported sexual partners
No 352 (85.0) 642 (94.6)  < 0.001
Yes 62 (15.0) 37 (5.5)  
  1. aData missing for 1 participant due to corrupted Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (CASI) software files
  2. bIncludes any experience of physical, emotional or sexual IPV
  3. cSexual risk behaviour data was only collected from participants who reported sexual encounters in the past 6 weeks
  4. dKey populations included sex workers n = 37, men who have sex with men (MSM) n = 4 and people who inject drugs (PWID) n = 1
  5. eRegular partner: long-term partner other than spouse
  6. fThose who could not recall using a condom at their last sexual encounter (n = 6, 3 males and 3 females) were included in the no condom use category