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Table 2 Bivariate Relationships Between Explanatory Variables and Vulnerability (Vulnerable vs. Not Vulnerable) on Five Developmental Health Domains Among Preschool-Aged Children in British Columbia, Canada, using Logistic Regression Model Reporting Crude Odds Ratios And 95% Confidence Intervals

From: Screen time and developmental health: results from an early childhood study in Canada

  Physical
health and wellbeing
Social
competence
Emotional maturity Language and cognitive development Communication skills
  OR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
Screen time
  > 1 h 1.86***
(1.46 - 2.37)
1.78***
(1.43 - 2.23)
1.62***
(1.31 - 1.99)
1.93***
(1.47 - 2.52)
1.74***
(1.35 - 2.23)
  ≤ 1 h Reference     
Sex
  Male 1.8***
(1.4 - 2.3)
2.85***
(2.24 - 3.63)
3.13***
(2.48 - 3.95)
1.4*
(1.07 - 1.83)
1.93***
(1.49 - 2.5)
  Female Reference     
Ethnicity
  European origins 0.91
(0.7 - 1.18)
0.75*
(0.59 - 0.94)
0.11
(1.16 - 1.16)
0.61**
(0.45 - 0.82)
0.4***
(0.3 - 0.53)
  Not Euro. origins Reference     
Annual household income
  < $75,000 2.2***
(1.68 - 2.89)
2.06***
(1.61 - 2.64)
1.77***
(1.41 - 2.23)
2.81***
(2.09 - 3.76)
2.26***
(1.66 - 3.08)
  ≥ $75,000 Reference     
Population Centre
  Urban 0.84
(0.63 - 1.12)
1.01
(0.76 - 1.35)
0.84
(0.63 - 1.11)
0.81
(0.6 - 1.08)
1.43*
(1.07 - 1.9)
  Small to medium Reference     
Physical activity
  Nonparticipant 2.79***
(2.14 - 3.65)
2.14***
(1.66 - 2.75)
1.88***
(1.47 - 2.41)
2.73***
(2.03 - 3.65)
2.65***
(2.01 - 3.5)
  Participant Reference     
Sleep
  < 10 h 1.68**
(1.19 - 2.38)
1.79***
(1.31 - 2.46)
1.88***
(1.39 - 2.53)
2.21***
(1.54 - 3.16)
2.12***
(1.51 - 2.97)
  ≥ 10 h Reference     
  1. Notes. N = 2,818. ***p < 0.001. **p < 0.01. *p < 0.05. For each of the five developmental health domains, vulnerable is coded as 1 and not vulnerable is coded as 0