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Table 3 Overview of job demands and resources of social firm employees

From: Capturing and analysing the working conditions of employees with disabilities in German social firms using focus groups

Job criteria

Job demands

Job resources

Work content

Stressful work tasks:

 • Self-responsibility, working alone

 • Repetitive work tasks

 • Feelings of disgust

Fulfilling work tasks:

 • Meaningful tasks

 • Customer contact

 • Being proud of accomplished work

 • Task variance

Work organisation

High workload and time pressure:

 • Overload due to staff shortage

 • Need for recovery from stressful working days

Moderate workload:

 • Adjusted workload to individual capacities

 • Adequately assigned work packages

 • Alternating tension and relaxation phases

Unfair distribution of work and challenges in collaboration:

 • Unequal allocation of workload

 • Unestablished working processes, unclear responsibilities

 • Perceived lack of motivation, inadequate quality of work of certain colleagues

Established work processes:

 • Clear allocation of tasks and responsibilities

 • Participation


 • Regular, scheduled team meetings

 • Solving problems within the team

 • Collegial agreements

 • Informal conversations

Working hours:

 • Early working times

Flexibility and autonomy in organizing break times

Insufficient reward:

 • Minimum wage too low for job performance

Reliable payment

Social relations

Interfering or gossiping colleagues:

 • Complaints

 • Orders given by colleagues

 • Unrequested interference into team issues

Team cohesion:

 • Social support from colleagues

 • Integrity and trust

 • Private meetings in leisure time

Pressure from supervisors:

 • Verbal communication

 • Stress of supervisor can be spilled over to employees

Relationship with the supervisor:

 • Supervisor support

 • Mediator for work or team conflicts

 • Appreciative, respectful interaction, verbal rewards, feedback


Working atmosphere:

 • Harmonious collaboration

 • Having fun at work (together)

 • Motivating teamwork

 • Respect

 • Appreciative, non-discriminatory interaction

 • Mutual acceptance of weaknesses

 • Patience in dealing with mistakes

Work environment

Physical effort:

 • Walking around a lot

 • Carrying heavy weights

Occupational safety:

 • Appropriate equipment and guidelines


 • High noise level in the kitchen

Snacks and drinks for team meetings