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Table 3 Overview of job demands and resources of social firm employees

From: Capturing and analysing the working conditions of employees with disabilities in German social firms using focus groups

Job criteria Job demands Job resources
Work content Stressful work tasks:
 • Self-responsibility, working alone
 • Repetitive work tasks
 • Feelings of disgust
Fulfilling work tasks:
 • Meaningful tasks
 • Customer contact
 • Being proud of accomplished work
 • Task variance
Work organisation High workload and time pressure:
 • Overload due to staff shortage
 • Need for recovery from stressful working days
Moderate workload:
 • Adjusted workload to individual capacities
 • Adequately assigned work packages
 • Alternating tension and relaxation phases
Unfair distribution of work and challenges in collaboration:
 • Unequal allocation of workload
 • Unestablished working processes, unclear responsibilities
 • Perceived lack of motivation, inadequate quality of work of certain colleagues
Established work processes:
 • Clear allocation of tasks and responsibilities
 • Participation
 • Regular, scheduled team meetings
 • Solving problems within the team
 • Collegial agreements
 • Informal conversations
Working hours:
 • Early working times
Flexibility and autonomy in organizing break times
Insufficient reward:
 • Minimum wage too low for job performance
Reliable payment
Social relations Interfering or gossiping colleagues:
 • Complaints
 • Orders given by colleagues
 • Unrequested interference into team issues
Team cohesion:
 • Social support from colleagues
 • Integrity and trust
 • Private meetings in leisure time
Pressure from supervisors:
 • Verbal communication
 • Stress of supervisor can be spilled over to employees
Relationship with the supervisor:
 • Supervisor support
 • Mediator for work or team conflicts
 • Appreciative, respectful interaction, verbal rewards, feedback
  Working atmosphere:
 • Harmonious collaboration
 • Having fun at work (together)
 • Motivating teamwork
 • Respect
 • Appreciative, non-discriminatory interaction
 • Mutual acceptance of weaknesses
 • Patience in dealing with mistakes
Work environment Physical effort:
 • Walking around a lot
 • Carrying heavy weights
Occupational safety:
 • Appropriate equipment and guidelines
 • High noise level in the kitchen
Snacks and drinks for team meetings