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Table 5 Comparison of inability to recover and emotional exhaustion depending on weekly working hours

From: Teachers’ working time as a risk factor for their mental health - findings from a cross-sectional study at German upper-level secondary schools

Variables Weekly working hours of teachers [h] Significance
Total (n = 4779) <40 (n = 1796) >45 (n = 2983) χ2-value p-value (effect size d)
n % n % n %   
Inability to recover (IR) [6 – 24 pts]
- normal (6 - 18 pts) 2935 61.4 1328 73.9 1607 53.9 196.28 <0.001 (0.414)
- noticeable (19 - 20 pts) 895 18.7 252 14.0 643 21.6  
- very noticeable (≥21- 24 pts) 949 19.9 216 12.0 733 24.5  
Emotional exhaustion (EE) [0 – 6 pts]
- low (≤2.0 pts) 2226 46.6 982 54.7 1244 41.7 83.99 <0.001 (0.268)
- normal (>2.0 – <3.2 pts) 1186 24.8 413 23.0 773 25.9  
- high (≥3.2 – 6.0 pts) 1367 28.6 401 22.3 966 32.4  
  1. Notes: n number of teachers, pts points; %: frequency in %. Chi-square test (Pearson); test size: χ2-value; p-value: significance (two-sided); effect size d: 0.2 - 0.4 = small effect [41]