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Table 2 Characteristics of the studied children and prevalence of under-five-deaths in LMIC by sex, 2010–2018

From: Sex inequality in under-five deaths and associated factors in low and middle-income countries: a Fairlie decomposition analysis

Characteristics n % Male % Under-5 death per 1000
Overall Male Female
Maternal current age (years)
 15-24 254,644 29.7 51.5 53 58 48
 25-34 442,799 51.7 51.5 47 50 44
 35-49 159,544 18.6 50.9 61 64 57
Maternal highest educational
 No education 292,866 34.2 51.1 69 74 64
 Primary 218,432 25.5 51 54 58 50
 Secondary+ 345,689 40.3 51.9 35 38 32
Media access
 No 340,783 40.5 50.9 66 70 61
 Yes 500,111 59.5 51.7 43 47 40
Maternal employment
 Employed 324,757 53.3 50.8 61 65 57
 Unemployed 284,531 46.7 51.3 45 49 40
Paternal employment
 Employed 541,347 95.8 51.1 55 60 51
 Unemployed 23,796 4.2 51.5 48 53 44
Marital status
 Never married 27,341 3.2 50.6 52 57 48
 Living With Sexual Partner 791,531 92.4 51.4 51 54 47
 Formerly 38,110 4.4 50.9 63 67 59
Sex of household head
 Male 718,578 83.8 51.4 52 55 48
 Female 138,409 16.2 51.3 51 54 47
Wealth index combined
 Poorest 221,239 25.8 50.8 62 67 57
 Poorer 193,674 22.6 51.2 58 61 54
 Middle 169,849 19.8 51.6 50 54 47
 Richer 148,944 17.4 51.4 45 48 42
 Richest 123,281 14.4 52.1 35 38 32
Covered by health insurance
 No 671,764 87.4 51.3 55 59 51
 Yes 96,784 12.6 51.6 33 36 30
Child is twin
 Single birth 834,700 97.4 51.4 47 51 44
 Multiple 22,287 2.6 50.5 198 216 18
Weight at birth
 Average+ 686908 84.1 52.2 45 46 41
 Small 94173 11.5 47.1 67 74 58
 Very small 35624 4.4 46.3 116 132 101
Birth order
 1 243,300 28.4 51.8 48 53 43
 2 205,906 24.0 51.5 41 44 37
 3 138,761 16.2 51.7 46 48 45
 4+ 269,020 31.4 51.7 66 69 62
Birth interval
 1st Birth 243,305 28.5 51.8 48 53 43
 <36 months 333,066 39.0 51.2 64 67 61
 36+ months 278,326 32.6 51.2 38 41 35
Drinking water
 Unimproved sources 188,610 22.7 50.8 67 71 62
 Improved source 641,485 77.3 51.5 47 51 44
Toilet type
 Unimproved sources 416,964 50.3 51.1 63 67 58
 Improved source 412,803 49.7 51.6 40 43 37
Cooking fuel
 Unclean/biomass 620,900 76.6 51.0 60 64 56
 Clean fuel 189,870 23.4 52.1 30 32 27
Housing material
 Unimproved material 500,644 62.7 51.0 61 65 56
 Improved material 298,152 37.3 51.8 41 44 38
Place of residence
 Urban 235,866 29.5 51.5 42 44 39
 Rural 562,930 70.5 51.2 58 59 51
Community SES Disadvantage
 Least disadvantaged 171,506 20.0 52.3 33 35 30
 2 171,291 20.0 51.2 46 49 42
 3 171,783 20.0 51.2 56 60 52
 4 171,392 20.0 51.0 62 67 57
 Most disadvantaged 171,015 20.0 51.2 62 66 58
Total 856,987 100.0 51.4 51 55 48