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Table 1 Distribution of sample characteristics and prevalence of under-five deaths in LMIC by sex, 2010–2018

From: Sex inequality in under-five deaths and associated factors in low and middle-income countries: a Fairlie decomposition analysis

Country No of Children Survey year No of Communities Male (%) Under-5 Death per 1000
Overall U5D Male U5D Female U5D
Overall 856,987   66495 51.4 51 55 48a
Eastern Africa 109,945   6298 50.7 52 57 47a
 Burundi 13,192 2011 554 50.5 59 62 55
 Comoros 3,149 2012 252 50.7 42 44 40
 Ethiopia 10,641 2016 643 51.9 55 67 42a
 Kenya 20,964 2014 1593 50.8 44 46 42
 Malawi 17,286 2016 850 50.1 49 55 42a
 Mozambique 11,102 2011 610 50.6 74 79 70
 Rwanda 7,856 2014 492 50.4 39 43 34a
 Tanzania 10,233 2015 608 50.7 53 57 48a
 Uganda 15,522 2016 696 50.4 51 58 44a
Middle Africa 76,790   2932 50.5 70 77 64a
 Angola 14,322 2016 625 49.8 51 58 45a
 Cameroon 9,733 2018 429 51.5 62 67 56a
 Chad 18,623 2015 624 51.2 98 108 88a
 Congo 9,329 2012 384 49.6 51 57 46a
 Congo DR 18,716 2014 536 49.7 75 77 72
 Gabon 6,067 2012 334 51.8 53 63 43a
Northern Africa 15,848   876 52.7 24 26 22
 Egypt 15,848 2014 876 52.7 24 26 22
Southern Africa 27,823   2549 49.9 51 55 46a
 Lesotho 3,138 2014 397 49.5 69 70 69
 Namibia 5,046 2013 537 48.8 45 46 44
 South Africa 3,548 2016 671 52.1 36 42 30
 Zambia 9,959 2018 545 50.2 49 56 42a
 Zimbabwe 6,132 2015 399 49.1 57 63 50a
Western Africa 147,996   6099 50.8 81 86 75a
 Benin 13,589 2018 555 51.0 70 78 62a
 Burkina Faso 15,044 2010 573 50.7 89 94 85a
 Cote d’Ivoire 7,776 2013 351 50.3 84 108 60a
 Gambia 8,088 2013 281 50.7 41 41 40
 Ghana 5,884 2014 427 52.2 46 50 43
 Guinea 7,951 2018 401 51.9 87 89 83
 Liberia 7,606 2013 322 51.1 70 70 70
 Mali 9,940 2018 345 50.8 72 74 69
 Niger 12,558 2012 476 50.5 81 84 77
 Nigeria 33,924 2018 1389 50.9 97 100 93a
 Senegal 6,719 2018 214 50.9 40 48 32a
 Sierra Leone 11,938 2013 435 50.0 113 120 107a
 Togo 6,979 2013 330 50.4 63 68 57
Central Asia 10,558   682 50.9 28 30 26
 Kyrgyz Rep 4,363 2012 316 51.2 26 23 30
 Tajikistan 6,195 2017 366 50.8 29 35 24a
 South-Eastern Asia 17,716   1851 51.5 26 28 24
 Cambodia 7,165 2014 609 50.1 29 31 26
 Philippines 10,551 2017 1242 52.5 24 25 23
Southern Asia 338,925   33064 52.0 44 46 41a
 Afghanistan 32,712 2015 956 51.6 47 49 45
 Bangladesh 7,886 2014 600 52.1 41 39 43
 India 259,627 2016 28332 52.2 44 47 41a
 Indonesia 17,848 2017 1967 51.1 27 32 23a
 Maldives 3,106 2016 265 50.9 18 21 15
 Nepal 5,038 2016 383 52.3 34 32 37
 Pakistan 12,708 2018 561 50.2 66 74 58a
Western Asia 28,475   2050 51.6 33 36 29a
 Armenia 1,724 2016 306 53.3 5 4 6
 Jordan 10,658 2017 964 51.6 17 19 16
 Yemen 16,093 2013 780 51.4 45 50 40a
Central America 23,328   1996 52.1 28 30 26
 Guatemala 12,440 2014 856 51.9 31 34 28
 Honduras 10,888 2011 1140 52.4 25 26 24
South America 21,379   4788 50.7 16 17 15
 Colombia 11,759 2015 3386 50.4 15 16 13
 Peru 9,620 2012 1402 51.1 17 19 16
Southern Europe 6,410   688 52.1 10 09 10
 Albania 2,762 2018 652 51.1 04 06 02
 Turkey 3,648 2013 36 52.8 14 12 17
Caribbean 22,280   1863 51.5 47 51 42a
 Dominican Rep 3,714 2013 518 51.7 29 33 25
 Haiti 6,530 2016 450 50.3 69 74 64
 Myanmar 4,815 2015 440 52.2 44 48 40
 Timor Leste 7,221 2016 455 52.0 37 41 33
Oceania 9,514   759 52.5 40 40 40
 Papua NG 9,514 2016 759 52.5 40 40 40
Total 856,987   66,495 51.4 51 55 48a
  1. aSignificant at 0.05 in the z-test of equality of proportions