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Table 8 Mapping the TBP constructs that predict e-cigarette use and intentions onto the TDF, intervention functions and suitable BCTs for inclusion in the intervention

From: Employing the theory of planned behaviour to design an e-cigarette education resource for use in secondary schools

TPB constructs Predictors of intentions for eachTBP constructs TPB constructs mapped onto the TDF Intervention function BCTs to be used to address intervention functions APPEASE criteria Content examples
Intentions To use e-cigarettes in the next month Intentions Education
Persuasion
Incentivisation
Coercion
Modelling
Information about the health consequences.
Antecedents
Information about social and environmental consequences of behaviour
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Encourage young people to intend to abstain from e-cigarette use.
Refusal rehearsal.
Embed abstention from e-cigarette use within the School.
Attitudes Fun
Cheap
Safe
Less likely to get into trouble with parents
Beliefs about consequences
Knowledge
Education
Persuasion
Modelling
Information about the health consequences.
Antecedents
Information about social and environmental consequences of behaviour
Yes
Yes
Yes
Provide information on:
-health implications of e-cigarette use and non-use.
- outline links to nicotine and addiction smoking.
Use media to identify examples of people to imitate or aspire to that do not use e-cigarettes.
Subjective norms Friends
Family
Parents Medics
Social influences Restriction
Environmental restructuring Modelling
Enablement
Restructuring the physical environment
Demonstration of behaviour
Social support
Problem solving
Action planning
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Raise awareness of social contexts that might lead to opportunities for experimenting with e-cigarettes.
Social support to prevent use.
Encourage others to abstain
Reduce social acceptability.Provide information to parents on risk of e-cigarette use in young people.
Raising awareness of parental roles in preventing uptake.
Raising awareness of the need to restrict access to e-cigarettes in the home.
Monitoring behaviour.
PBC:
• Self-efficacy
Facilitators:
Parent permission
Curiosity
Owning one
Friends owning one
Being cool
Barriers:
Parent getting into trouble
Illegal purchase
Beliefs about capabilities Education
Persuasion
Modelling
Enablement
Information about health consequences
Antecedents
Information about social and environmental consequences of behaviour
Demonstration of behaviour
Social support
Problem solving
Action planning
Restructuring the physical environment
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Enhance refusal self-efficacy Impart skills required to say no to e-cigarette experimentation
Suggest to parents to discourage their children from using e-cigarettes via an information leaflet on their role in health behaviours
• Control beliefs   Environmental context & resources Training
Restriction
Environmental restructuring
enablement
Restructuring the physical environment No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Provide information on legislation around the use of e-cigarettes in young people.
Raise safety concerns about e-cigarettes bought online.
Create the expectation that there is a cost or punishment associated with the use of e-cigarettes.
Embed these components in a school-based policy around the use of e-cigarettes in school
  1. APPEASE criteria include considerations around affordability, practicability, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, acceptability, side-effects/ safety and equity