Skip to main content

Table 2 Maternal and neonatal characteristics of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal singleton pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes, 1998–2015

From: Trends and burden of diabetes in pregnancy among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mothers in Western Australia, 1998–2015

Characteristic Aboriginal Mothers Non-Aboriginal mothers
1998 to 2003 (n = 404) 2004 to 2009 (n = 539) 2010 to 2015 (n = 917) P trend 1998 to 2003 (n = 5088) 2004 to 2009 (n = 7362) 2010 to 2015 (n = 15,447) P trend
Maternal Characteristics
 Maternal age (years)
  25 or below 140 (34.7) 192 (35.6) 356 (38.8) 0.114 590 (11.6) 855 (11.6) 1657 (10.7) 0.037
   > 25 to 35 210 (52.0) 274 (50.8) 425 (46.3) 0.038 3249 (63.9) 4484 (60.9) 9896 (64.1) 0.106
  above 35 54 (13.4) 73 (13.5) 136 (14.8) 0.429 1249 (24.5) 2023 (27.5) 3894 (25.2) 0.777
  Mean (SD)a 28.2 (6.2) 28.1 (6.2) 28.1 (6.3) 0.609 31.7 (5.3) 32.1 (5.3) 31.9 (5.2) 0.145
 Parity group
  0 70 (17.3) 98 (18.2) 238 (26.0) < 0.001 1938 (38.1) 3098 (42.1) 6814 (44.3) < 0.001
  1 81 (20.0) 108 (20.0) 208 (22.7) 0.210 1731 (34.0) 2374 (32.2) 5056 (32.9) 0.314
  2 76 (18.8) 96 (17.8) 163 (17.8) 0.690 856 (16.8) 1099 (14.9) 2179 (14.2) < 0.001
  3 plus 177 (43.8) 237 (44.0) 307 (33.5) < 0.001 563 (11.1) 791 (10.7) 1322 (8.6) < 0.001
 Caesarean delivery 141 (34.9) 188 (34.9) 356 (38.9) 0.108 1882 (37.0) 3161 (42.9) 6545 (42.7) < 0.001
 Smoking during pregnancy 166 (41.1) 208 (38.6) 373 (40.8) 0.926 814 (16.0) 818 (11.1) 1084 (7.1) < 0.001
SES tertiles
  1st (most disadvantaged) 259 (73.0) 368 (75.4) 627 (72.0) 0.512 1709 (35.1) 2498 (35.0) 5357 (35.6) 0.385
  2nd 77 (21.7) 95 (19.5) 188 (21.6) 0.844 1692 (34.8) 2383 (33.4) 5173 (34.4) 0.941
  3rd (least disadvantaged) 19 (5.4) 25 (5.1) 56 (6.4) 0.369 1465 (30.1) 2257 (31.6) 4498 (29.9) 0.328
 Remote or very remote residence 204 (54.3) 249 (47.8) 360 (39.4) < 0.001 428 (8.6) 601 (8.3) 557 (3.6) < 0.001
 Preterm birth 51 (12.6) 69 (12.8) 133 (14.5) 0.292 464 (9.1) 727 (9.9) 1454 (9.5) 0.687
 Preeclampsia 42 (10.4) 37 (6.9) 35 (3.8) < 0.001 433 (8.5) 317 (4.3) 384 (2.5) < 0.001
Neonatal Characteristics
 Perinatal death < 10 (< 2.5)b < 10 (< 1.9)b 11 (1.2) 0.432 27 (0.5) 33 (0.4) 40 (0.3) 0.002
 Female sex 204 (50.5) 251 (46.6) 418 (45.6) 0.118 2418 (47.5) 3468 (47.1) 7463 (48.3) 0.172
 LGA 120 (29.7) 118 (21.9) 193 (21.1) 0.002 978 (19.2) 1259 (17.1) 2029 (13.3) < 0.001
 SGA 32 (7.9) 42 (7.8) 65 (7.1) 0.563 310 (6.1) 507 (6.9) 1277 (8.3) < 0.001
  1. Data represented as numbers (percentages)
  2. LGA large for gestational age, SD standard deviation, SES socio-economic status, SGA small for gestational age
  3. aThe over time trends of maternal age (as a continuous variable) were assessed by simple linear regression
  4. bTo maintain confidentiality, the numbers (percentages) are not shown for small cells