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Table 1 Maternal and neonatal characteristics of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal singleton pregnancies complicated by pre-gestational diabetes, 1998–2015

From: Trends and burden of diabetes in pregnancy among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mothers in Western Australia, 1998–2015

Characteristic Aboriginal Mothers Non-Aboriginal mothers
1998 to 2003 (n = 266) 2004 to 2009 (n = 293) 2010 to 2015 (n = 354) P trend 1998 to 2003 (n = 730) 2004 to 2009 (n = 1096) 2010 to 2015 (n = 1546) P trend
Maternal Characteristics
 Maternal age (years)
  25 or below 75 (28.2) 66 (22.5) 71 (20.1) 0.019 146 (20.0) 154 (14.1) 194 (12.5) < 0.001
   > 25 to 35 138 (51.9) 152 (51.9) 215 (60.7) 0.021 443 (60.7) 681 (62.1) 956 (61.8) 0.663
  above 35 53 (19.9) 75 (25.6) 68 (19.2) 0.702 141 (19.3) 261 (23.8) 396 (25.6) 0.001
 Mean (SD)a 29.6 (6.4) 30.8 (6.3) 30.6 (6.1) 0.096 30.4 (5.6) 31.6 (5.4) 31.8 (5.3) < 0.001
 Parity group
  0 36 (13.5) 36 (12.3) 57 (16.1) 0.320 248 (34.0) 334 (30.5) 524 (34.0) 0.671
  1 46 (17.3) 43 (14.7) 72 (20.3) 0.266 260 (35.6) 430 (39.2) 542 (35.1) 0.486
  2 56 (21.1) 47 (16.0) 70 (19.8) 0.783 145 (19.9) 198 (18.1) 282 (18.3) 0.435
  3 plus 128 (48.1) 167 (57.0) 155 (43.8) 0.186 77 (10.5) 134 (12.2) 195 (12.6) 0.177
 Caesarean delivery 125 (47.0) 171 (58.4) 216 (61.0) 0.001 397 (54.5) 672 (61.3) 890 (58.0) 0.295
 Smoking during pregnancy 119 (44.7) 153 (52.2) 186 (52.5) 0.065 151 (20.7) 161 (14.7) 166 (10.8) < 0.001
 SES tertiles
  1st (most disadvantaged) 196 (85.2) 214 (81.4) 265 (82.0) 0.368 279 (39.9) 385 (36.2) 544 (36.4) 0.167
  2nd < 35 (< 15.2)b 39 (14.8) 40 (12.4) 0.760 233 (33.3) 375 (35.2) 522 (34.9) 0.536
  3rd (least disadvantaged) < 10 (< 4.3)b 10 (3.8) 18 (5.6) 0.022 187 (26.8) 304 (28.6) 428 (28.6) 0.407
 Remote or very remote residence 155 (63.3) 178 (62.5) 213 (60.7) 0.512 100 (13.9) 109 (10.1) 70 (4.6) < 0.001
 Preterm birth 82 (30.9) 107 (36.5) 128 (36.3) 0.191 192 (26.3) 289 (26.4) 391 (25.5) 0.617
 Preeclampsia 50 (18.8) 28 (9.6) 27 (7.6) < 0.001 131 (18.0) 73 (6.7) 106 (6.9) < 0.001
Neonatal Characteristics
 Perinatal death 14 (5.3) 11 (3.8) 15 (4.2) 0.573 15 (2.1) 15 (1.4) 16 (1.0) 0.055
 Female sex 124 (46.6) 148 (50.5) 175 (49.4) 0.522 356 (48.8) 532 (48.5) 751 (48.6) 0.943
 LGA 89 (33.6) 100 (34.1) 116 (32.9) 0.833 280 (38.4) 423 (38.6) 502 (32.7) 0.002
 SGA 33 (12.5) 26 (8.9) 29 (8.2) 0.087 30 (4.1) 46 (4.2) 71 (4.6) 0.533
  1. Data represented as numbers (percentages)
  2. LGA large for gestational age, SD standard deviation, SES socio-economic status, SGA small for gestational age
  3. aThe over time trends of maternal age (as a continuous variable) were assessed by simple linear regression
  4. bTo maintain confidentiality, the numbers (percentages) are not shown for small cells. Numbers in the second least prevalent groups are also not shown to prevent calculating numbers in small cells