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Table 4 Clinical effectiveness of ERS on mental health symptoms

From: Evaluation of the uptake, retention and effectiveness of exercise referral schemes for the management of mental health conditions in primary care: a systematic review

Study details Outcome measure Outcome assessment timings Short-term results ERS vs. C Long-term results ERS vs. C
Chalder
2012 [29]
Trial
BDI-II 4, 8, 12 months 4 months adjusted between group difference in mean BDI-II score
= -0.54 (95%CI -3.06 to 1.99) P=0.68
Combined 4, 8 and 12 months adjusted between group difference in mean BDI-II score = -1.20 (95%CI -3.42 to 1.02) P=0.29
Murphy 2012 [30]
Trial
HADS 12 months Did not assess HADS depression
12 months adjusted between group difference in HADS depression score = -1.39 (95%CI -2.60 to -0.18) P<0.05
HADS anxiety
12 months adjusted between group difference in HADS anxiety score = -1.56 (95%CI -2.75 to -0.38) P<0.05
Forsyth
2015 [32]
Trial
DASS-21 3 months DASS-21 depression subscale
  ERS difference from baseline = -2.1
  C difference from baseline = -4.0
  Between group difference P=0.1
DASS-21 anxiety subscale
  ERS difference from baseline = -1.4
  C difference from baseline = -3.0
  Between group difference P=0.08
DASS-21 stress subscale
  ERS difference from baseline = -1.5
  C difference from baseline = -1.8
  Between group difference P=0.06
Total DASS-21 scores
  ERS difference from baseline = -5.1
  C difference from baseline = -6.1
  Between group difference P=0.04
Did not assess
  1. ERS exercise referral scheme group, C comparator group, CI confidence interval, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, BDI-II Beck depression inventory (version II) score, DASS-21 Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, P<0.05 = significant difference