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Table 2 Study characteristics

From: Evaluation of the uptake, retention and effectiveness of exercise referral schemes for the management of mental health conditions in primary care: a systematic review

First Author
Year
Country
Study Type MH Eligibility Criteria Mental health condition (% of patients) Includes Non-MH Referrals
(Yes/No)
Comparator(s) Sample size
(ERS/C if applicable)
Female %
(ERS/C if applicable)
Mean age
(± SD)
ERS/C if applicable
Outcomes of this review addressed
Harrison [27]
2005
United Kingdom
Retrospective data analysis Participant characteristics:
- ≥18 years old
- Sedentary
Referral reasons:
- MH (types not specified)
N/I Yes Participants referred for non-MH reasons
(took part in same ERS programme)
Sample size = 339
Total female (%) = 60.8
Total =
51.3 (±12.6)
- Uptake/ Adherence
Crone [28]
2008
United Kingdom
Retrospective data analysis Participant characteristics:
- N/I
Referral reasons:
- Depression
- Anxiety/ Loss of confidence
- Stress/ Tension
Anxiety/loss of confidence
= 26%
Depression
= 61%
Stress/tension
= 13%
Yes Participants referred for physical health conditions
(took part in same ERS programme)
Sample size = 134
Female (%) = 64
42 (±14) - Uptake/ Adherence
Chalder [29]
2012
United Kingdom
RCT Participant characteristics:
- 18-69 years old
- Have not failed to respond to antidepressants
Referral reasons:
- Mild/moderate depression
Depression = 100% No Control group who received usual care Sample size = 361 (182/179)
Female (%) = 68/65
40.9 (±12.5) /
38.8 (±12.7)
- Clinical effectiveness
- Uptake/ Adherence
- Long-term activity levels
Murphy [30]
2012
United Kingdom
RCT Participant characteristics:
- >16 years old
- Sedentary
Referral reasons:
- Mild anxiety
- Mild depression
- Stress
Anxiety = N/I
Depression = N/I
Stress = N/I
Yes Control group who received usual care, information leaflet and addresses of local facilities Sample size =
601 (310/291)
- MH only =
79 (41/38)
- MH+CHD = 522 (269/253)
Female (%) = 65.6/65.5
Total =
52 (±14.7)
- Clinical effectiveness
- Long-term activity levels
Moore [31]
2013
United Kingdom
RCT Participant characteristics:
- >16 years old
- Sedentary
Referral reasons:
- Mild anxiety
- Mild depression
- Stress
Anxiety = N/I
Depression = N/I
Stress = N/I
Yes Participants referred for coronary heart disease only
(took part in same ERS programme)
Sample size = 310
MH:
- MH only = 41
- MH+CHD = 269
Total female (%) = 65.6
Total =
52 (±14.7)
- Uptake/ Adherence
Forsyth [32]
2015
Australia
RCT Participant characteristics:
- >18 years old
Referral reasons:
- Depression
- Anxiety
Depression only = 46%
Anxiety only = 25%
Both = 29%
No Control group received 5-minute phone call every two weeks to assess for any diet or physical activity changes. No advice given Sample size = 94 (52/42)
Female (%) =
73/71
43.88 (±14.17)a /
47.33 (±13.45)a
- Clinical effectiveness
- Uptake/ Adherence
Tobi [33]
2017
United Kingdom
Retrospective data analysis Participant characteristics:
- Sedentary
Referral reasons:
- Depression
- Anxiety
- Stress
- Other mental disorders
Anxiety = N/I
Depression = N/I
Stress = N/I
Other mental disorders = N/I
Yes Participants referred for physical health conditions
(took part in same ERS programme)
Sample size = 141
Female (%) = 63.1
41.3 (±11.8) - Uptake/ Adherence
Avery [34]
2020
United States of America
Retrospective data analysis Participant characteristics:
- War veterans
Referral reasons:
- Depression
- Stress/anxiety
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
Depression = 3%a
Stress/anxiety = 95%a
Post-traumatic stress disorder = 3%a
Yes Participants referred for physical health conditions
(took part in same ERS programme)
Sample size = 149a
Female (%) = 70.1%
58.4 (±14.4)a - Uptake/ Adherence
Morgan [35]
2020
United Kingdom
Retrospective data linkage study Participant characteristics:
- >16 years old
- Sedentary
Referral reasons:
- Mild anxiety
- Mild depression
- Stress
Anxiety = N/I
Depression = N/I
Stress = N/I
Yes Participants referred for coronary heart disease only
(took part in same ERS programme)
Sample size = 14,632
- MH only = 8603
- MH+CHD = 6029
Total female (%) = 61.65
Total =
53 (±16.6)
- Uptake/ Adherence
  1. a = information obtained from author, N/I no information provided, MH mental health, ERS exercise referral scheme, C comparator, SD standard deviation, RCT randomised controlled trial, CHD coronary heart disease