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Table 1 Characteristics of participating children (n = 876)

From: Children’s screen use and school readiness at 4-6 years: prospective cohort study

Variable Total Sample (n = 876) Children not vulnerable on the EDI
(n = 745)
Children vulnerable on the EDI
(n = 131)
Age at exposure (years), mean (SD) 3.7 (0.4) 3.9 (0.6) 3.4 (0.2)
Age at outcome (years), mean (SD) 5.4 (0.3) 5.8 (0.2) 5.6 (0.5)
Sex, Male, n(%) 463 (52.8) 362 (48.6) 101 (77.1)
Birth weight (kilograms), mean (SD) 3.3 (0.7) 3.4 (0.5) 2.9 (0.8)
Ethnicity, n(%)    
European Ancestry 606 (69.2) 570 (76.4) 36 (27.7)
South Asian and South-East Asian 27 (3.1) 20 (2.7) 7 (5.3)
East Asian 32 (3.7) 22 (3.0) 10 (7.6)
Other 37 (4.2) 28 (3.8) 9 (11.8)
Mixed Ethnicity 174 (19.9) 102 (13.7) 72 (55.4)
Maternal Education, n(%)    
College/ University 802 (91.6) 705 (98.5) 37 (35.2)
High School or less 74 (8.4) 11 (1.5) 68 (64.8)
Household Income, n(%)    
$0 to $56,999 129 (14.7) 83 (11.3) 41 (44.1)
$60,000 to $99,999 156 (17.8) 122 (16.6) 23 (24.7)
$100,000 to $149,999 241 (27.5) 217 (29.5) 10 (10.8)
$150,000 + 350 (40.0) 313 (42.6) 19 (14.0)
Total daily screen use (hours), mean (SD) 4.8 (2.3) 4.1 (1.9) 5.6 (2.4)
Special needs designation, n(%) 23 (2.6) 6 (0.8) 17 (12.9)
Early Development Instrument (EDI)    
Physical health and well-being, mean (SD) 9.1 (1.1) 9.4 (1.2) 8.8 (1.4)
Social competence, mean (SD) 8.8 (0.6) 9.0 (1.6) 8.6 (1.8)
Emotional maturity, mean (SD) 8.5 (1.3) 8.8 (1.5) 8.3 (1.5)
Language and cognitive development, mean (SD) 8.8 (0.8) 9.0 (1.5) 8.5 (1.9)
Communication skills and general knowledge, mean (SD) 9.1 (1.7) 9.2 (2.1) 8.9 (2.3)