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Table 4 Fatal drowning in the Netherlands; comparison between 1998 and 2007 and 2008–2017 by migration background. The incidence of 2008–2017 is age-adjusted (Standard Mortality) based on the population 1998–2007 of the group with the same background. Additional information on Standard Mortality, Standard Mortality Ratio, Deviation Rate and 95% Confidence Interval by cause of drowning and migration background is available as Supplementary Table 4

From: Fatal drowning statistics from the Netherlands – an example of an aggregated demographic profile

  1998–2007 2008–2017
Standard Mortality (SM)
Total drownings
 Native Dutch background 1.55 1.25**
 Western background 1.50 1.34
 Non-western background 1.99 1.54*
Suicide by drowning
 Native Dutch background 0.71 0.59**
 Western background 0.65 0.56
 Non-western background 0.60 0.50**
Accidental drowning
 Native Dutch background 0.52 0.41**
 Western background 0.57 0.52
 Non-western background 1.00 0.75**
Transport accidents with drowning
 Native Dutch background 0.26 0.22**
 Western background 0.19 0.22
 Non-western background 0.28 0.21**
  1. ** Standard mortality (SM) in the period 2008–2017 is significantly lower compared to 1998–2007 (t-test: p < 0.05)