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Table 1 Basic characteristics of households and maternal factors in migrant and non-migrant participants

From: When husband migrate: effects of international migration of husbands on fetal outcomes, body mass index and gestational weight of female spouses that stay behind

  Migrant Non-migrant Total
Household characteristic No. (%)
Place of residency***
 Urban 55 (19.4) 775 (11.2) 830 (11.5)
 Rural 229 (80.6) 6140 (88.8) 6369 (88.5)
Ethnicity***
 Sinhala 96 (33.8) 4335 (62.7) 4431 (61.6)
 Tamil 80 (28.2) 1823 (26.4) 1903 (26.4)
 Muslim 108 (38.0) 757 (10.9) 865 (12.0)
Household income (Rs.) ***
 < 35000 122 (43.0) 4538 (65.6) 4660 (64.7)
>35000 162 (57.0) 2377 (34.4) 2539 (35.3)
Household food security***
 Severe food insecure 2 (0.7) 312 (4.5) 314 (4.4)
 Moderate food insecure 76 (26.8) 2709 (39.2) 2785 (38.7)
 Food secure 206 (72.5) 3894 (56.3) 4100 (57.0)
  Mean (SD)
Number of household members*** 5.4 (1.8) 4.9 (1.4) 4.9 (1.4)
Husband’s age in years* 33.2 (5.3) 32.3 (5.9) 32.4 (5.9)
Husband’s years of schooling*** 11 (1.6) 10.5 (1.9) 10.5 (1.9)
  Mean (SD)
Mother’s age in years 29.2 (5.3) 28.8 (5.6) 28.8 (5.6)
Mother’s years of schooling 11.0 (1.8) 10.8 (1.8) 10.8 (1.8)
Current BMI (kg/m2) 23.8 (4.2) 23.3 (4.2) 23.4 (4.2)
Pre-pregnant BMI (kg/m2) 22.5 (4.3) 22.0(4.4) 22.0 (4.4)
Weight gain during pregnancy (kg)*** 10.2 (1.8) 9.3 (4.9) 9.3 (4.9)
  No. (%)
Parity**
 Primipara (1) 111 (39.1) 2210 (32.0) 2321 (32.2)
 Multipara (>1) 173 (60.9) 4705 (68.0) 4878 (67.8)
Place of delivery***
 Government hospital 261 (91.9) 6739 (97.5) 7000 (97.2)
 Private hospital 23 (8.1) 176 (2.5) 199 (2.8)
Type of delivery
 Normal vaginal delivery 174 (61.3) 4583 (66.3) 4757 (66.1)
 Caessarian section/forceps/vacuum 110 (38.7) 2332 (33.7) 2442 (33.9)
Prepregnant BMI groups**
 Underweight (<18.5) 40 (15.6) 1437 (22.9) 1477 (22.6)
 Adequate (18.5-24.9) 159 (61.9) 3324 (53.0) 3488 (53.3)
 Overweight (25.0-29.9) 39 (15.2) 1202 (19.2) 1241 (19.0)
 Obese (>=30.0) 19 (7.4) 313 (5.0) 332 (5.1)
Weight gain during pregnancy (kg)**
 < 7.0 47 (18.5) 1577 (25.2) 1624 (25.0)
 7.5-11.9 107 (42.1) 2238 (45.4) 2945 (45.2)
 ≥ 12.0 100 (39.4) 1840 (29.4) 1940 (29.8)
n 284 6915 7199
  1. * p<0.05
  2. ** p<0.01
  3. *** p<0.001