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Table 4 Viral suppression (viral load < 200 copies per mL) by patient characteristics among patients with HIV infection whose medical records were reviewed and who had a reported viral load result, northeast Massachusetts, 2018 (N = 84)

From: An outbreak of HIV infection among people who inject drugs in northeastern Massachusetts: findings and lessons learned from a medical record review

  Overalla
(N = 84)
Most Recent VL Suppressed
(N = 61)
Most recent VL Not Suppressed
(N = 23)
p valueb
N n (row %) n (row %)
Sex
 Male 53 38 72 15 28 1.00
 Female 31 23 74 8 26  
Race/ethnicity
 White non-Hispanic 43 32 74 11 26 0.81
 Black non-Hispanic 4 3 75 1 25  
 Hispanic/Latino 33 23 70 10 30 0.63
 Other/unknown 4 3 75 1 25  
Age (as of 6/30/2018, years)
 20-29 24 14 58 10 42 0.10
 30-39 33 25 76 8 24  
 40-49 15 12 80 3 20  
 50-59 7 5 71 2 29  
  ≥ 60 5 5 100 0 0  
Place of birth
 United States 48 37 77 11 23 0.33
 Puerto Rico 18 13 72 5 28 1.00
 Other 3 2 67 1 33  
 Unknown 15 9 60 6 40 0.34
HIV exposure risk
 Heterosexual only 12 10 83 2 17 0.50
 IDU 67 47 70 20 30 0.38
 MSM/IDU 1 0 0 1 100  
 Unknown/not documented 4 4 100 0 0 0.57
Year HIV diagnosis
 Before and including 2016 c 29 28 97 1 3 < 0.0001
 2017-2018 55 33 60 22 40  
Health insurance coverage
 Medicare 9 7 78 2 22 1.00
 Medicaid 69 50 72 19 28  
 Medicare/Medicaid 1 0 0 1 100  
 Private health insurance 1 1 100 0 0  
 None, self-pay 4 3 75 1 25  
Incarceration during the review period
 Yes 19 15 79 4 21 0.57
 No 65 46 71 19 29  
Homelessness during the review period
 Yes 63 45 71 18 29 0.78
 No 18 14 78 4 22  
 Not documented 3 2 67 1 33  
Hospitalizations during the review period
 Yes 49 36 73 13 27 1.00
 No 35 25 71 10 29  
Medication assisted treatment prescribed during review periodd
 Yes 50 37 74 13 26 0.81
 No 34 24 71 10 29  
ART prescribed during review period       
 Yes 68 54 79 14 21 0.01
 No 16 7 44 9 56  
Substance use during review period (not mutually exclusive) n = 83 n = 60 n = 23  
 Active use in review period 59 40 68 19 32 0.18
 History of use/inactive in review period 8 6 75 2 25  
 History of use/inactive in review period, on suboxone 11 9 82 2 18  
 No history 5 5 100 0 0  
Treatment for drug and alcohol use (not mutually exclusive) n = 59 n = 40 n = 19  
 Medication assisted treatmentd 38 27 71 11 29 0.56
 In treatment, another modalitye 23 13 57 10 43 0.16
 Counseled by provider 13 8 62 5 38  
 No action indicated 3 2 67 1 33  
In treatment, another modality (not mutually exclusive) n = 23 n = 13 n = 10  
 Counseling 9 4 44 5 56 0.42
 12-step program 3 2 67 1 33  
 Halfway/sober house 9 7 78 2 22 0.20
 Other 10 4 40 6 60  
  1. aAs determined through medical record review, and HIV surveillance data (for viral load measures, only) reported to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health through October 31, 2018. Medical record review period was May 1, 2016 through date of data abstraction (abstraction done May 17 to June 6, 2018)
  2. bTwo-tailed Fisher Exact test p-value. Categories are compared to all other remaining categories unless otherwise indicated
  3. cIn analyses disaggregated by individual year of HIV diagnosis, HIV viral load suppression was 91% for 11 persons diagnosed before 2015, and was 100% for those diagnosed in either 2015 or 2016. It was 60% for those diagnosed in either 2017 or 2018. P-value applies to diagnoses before 2017 versus those during 2017-2018
  4. dIncludes naltrexone, buprenorphine/naloxone, and methadone
  5. eIncludes counseling, 12-step program, halfway/sober house, and other [detox program (n = 6), referral made (n = 3), and residential program (n = 1)]