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Table 3 Clinical characteristics and engagement in care of patients with HIV infection whose medical records were reviewed, northeast Massachusetts, 2018 (N = 88)

From: An outbreak of HIV infection among people who inject drugs in northeastern Massachusetts: findings and lessons learned from a medical record review

  na %
Time since HIV infection diagnosis (as of June 30, 2018)
  < 6 months 13 15
 6 months to one year 29 33
 1- < 2 years 23 26
 2- < 5 years 18 20
 5+ years 5 6
Acute HIV infection documented during review period 10 11
In care since HIV diagnosis (one or more medical visits on or after date of diagnosis)
 Yes 81 92
 No 7 8
In care at CHC during review period (had at least 1 primary care visit in each review year)
 In care both years 50 57
 In care 2016/2017 only 8 9
 In care 2017/2018 only 30 34
On anti-retroviral therapy (ART) during review period
 Yes 68 77
 No 20 23
Initiated ART for the first time during the review period
 Yes 48 55
 No 40 45
Viral load (VL) test results during the review periodb
  > 1 VL test 84 95
 At least 2 VL tests 69 78
 No VL test 4 5
Viral load suppression (< 200 copies/mL)b (n = 84)
 Most recent VL suppressed 61 73
 Most recent VL unsuppressed 23 27
Viral load below limit of detection (< 20 copies/mL)b (n = 84)
 Most recent VL undetectable 50 60
 Most recent VL detectable 34 40
Hospitalized during the review period
 Yes 50 57
 No 38 43
Bacterial infection among hospitalized (N = 50)
 Yes 18 36
 No 32 64
Bacterial infections among hospitalized (N = 18) (categories not mutually exclusive)
 Bacteremia 8 44
 Endocarditis 2 11
 Osteomyelitis 0 0
 Cellulitis 11 61
 Other 3 17
Hepatitis C infectionc
 History documented (ever) 72 82
 Treatment documented (ever) 5 7
Hepatitis B immune statusc (through end of review period)
 Positive 58 66
 Negative 22 25
 Unknown 8 9
If Hepatitis B negative or unknown (n = 30), received 3 HBV vaccine doses
 Yes 8 27
 No 22 73
Sexually transmitted infections during review periodd
 Yes 8 9
 No 80 91
Prescribed any of the following medications during the review period
 Any Opioid 5 6
 Fentanyl 0 0
 Oxycodone 0 0
 Methadone 26 30
 Naltrexone 13 15
 Buprenorphine 0 0
 Buprenorphine/naloxone 22 25
 Benzodiazepine or another anxiolytic 7 8
 Antidepressant 36 41
 Antipsychotic 18 21
  1. aAs determined through medical record review, and HIV surveillance data (for viral load measures, only) reported to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health through October 31, 2018. Medical record review period was May 1, 2016 through date of data abstraction (abstraction done May 17 to June 6, 2018)
  2. bBased on information from chart review supplemented with HIV surveillance data
  3. cHepatitis B immune status definitions: positive: if positive result for surface antigen, surface antibody, core antibody, or presence of HBV DNA; negative: if negative result for both surface antibody and core antibody or HBV DNA negative
  4. dDiagnosed sexually transmitted infections include gonorrhea (n = 3), chlamydia (n = 3), and syphilis (n = 2)