Skip to main content

Table 4 Factors associated with lipid-lowering medications use for primary prevention of CVD^

From: Prevalence and factors associated with lipid-lowering medications use for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among Malaysians: the REDISCOVER study

  Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Ethnicity
 Malay 1   1  
 Chinese 2.42 (1.98–2.95) 0.000* 1.38 (0.89–2.16) 0.154
 Indian 2.69 (1.91–3.80) 0.000* 1.31 (0.70–2.43) 0.396
 Indigenous 0.34 (0.23–0.50) 0.000* 1.01 (0.58–1.77) 0.960
Education attainment
 No formal education 1   1  
 Primary school 1.63 (1.17–2.29) 0.004* 1.50 (0.73–3.08) 0.274
 Secondary school 2.16 (1.57–2.97) 0.000* 3.24 (1.61–6.52) 0.001*
 Tertiary 3.08 (2.21–4.27) 0.000* 3.02 (1.37–6.66) 0.006*
Location
 Urban 1   1  
 Rural 0.32 (0.27–0.38) 0.000* 0.56 (0.40–0.79) 0.001*
Occupation
 Homemaker/unemployed 1   1  
 Semi-skilled 0.69 (0.58–0.83) 0.000* 0.78 (0.53–1.15) 0.212
 Skilled workers 1.18 (0.90–1.55) 0.224 0.93 (0.55–1.56) 0.784
 Managerial and Professional 1.58 (1.22–2.04) 0.001* 1.03 (0.58–1.85) 0.920
Household income group
 Bottom 40% (≤ RM 4849) 1   1  
 Middle 40% – Top 20% (≥ RM 4850) 2.81 (2.08–3.79) 0.000* 1.54 (1.06–2.24) 0.025*
10-year Framingham general cardiovascular risk (FRS-CVD) categories
 Low risk <  10% 1   1  
 Intermediate risk 10–20% 1.76 (1.43–2.16) 0.000* 2.50 (1.78–3.49) 0.000*
 High risk >  20% 2.61 (2.17–3.14) 0.000* 3.81 (2.78–5.23) 0.000*
  1. Abbreviation: OR Odds ratio
  2. ^ include participants without CVD, n = 10,692
  3. Variables included in multiple logistic regression model: ethnicity, education, location (urban/rural), occupation, household income, 10-year Framingham general cardiovascular risk (FRS-CVD) categories. No significant interactions
  4. *Significant at p < 0.05