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Table 2 Lipid-lowering medication (LLM) use among high-risk participants

From: Prevalence and factors associated with lipid-lowering medications use for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among Malaysians: the REDISCOVER study

  Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), n = 596 Diabetes, n = 1799 10-year Framingham general cardiovascular risk (FRS-CVD) > 20%, n^ = 2478
Not on LLM,
n (%)
On LLM,
n (%)
p-value Not on LLM,
n (%)
On LLM,
n (%)
p-value Not on LLM,
n (%)
On LLM,
n (%)
p-value
Overall (n, %) 439 (74.2) 153 (25.8)   1491 (82.9) 308 (17.1)   2217 (89.5) 261 (10.5)  
Age groups (years)
 30–39 15 (93.75) 1 (6.25) 0.026* 81 (93.10) 6 (6.90) 0.000* 92 (100.00) 0 (0) 0.001*
 40–49 83 (83.00) 17 (17.00)   343 (88.17) 46 (11.83)   107 (84.25) 20 (15.75)  
 50–59 136 (70.10) 58 (29.90)   549 (82.19) 119 (17.81)   685(87.93) 94 (12.07)  
 ≥60 205 (72.70) 77 (27.30)   518 (79.08) 137 (20.92)   1333 (90.07) 147 (9.93)  
Gender
 Male 238 (70.62) 99 (29.38) 0.024* 716 (80.72) 171 (19.28) 0.017* 1535 (89.50) 180 (10.50) 0.928
 Female 201 (78.82) 54 (21.18)   775 (84.98) 137 (15.02)   682 (89.38) 81 (10.62)  
Ethnicity
 Malay 300 (72.99) 111 (27.01) 0.001* 1285 (83.93) 246 (16.07) 0.000* 1752 (90.17) 191 (9.83) 0.000*
 Chinese 32 (65.31) 17 (34.69)   76 (66.67) 38 (33.33)   155 (74.16) 54 (25.84)  
 Indian 10 (50.00) 10 (50.00)   71 (78.02) 20 (21.98)   47 (79.66) 12 (20.34)  
 Indigenous 97 (86.61) 15 (13.39)   59 (93.65) 4 (6.35)   263 (98.50) 4 (1.50)  
Education attainment
 No formal education 106 (84.13) 20 (15.87) 0.000* 181 (89.60) 21 (10.40) 0.000* 450 (95.14) 23 (4.86) 0.000*
 Primary school 153 (78.46) 42 (21.54)   462 (85.24) 80 (14.76)   779 (91.76) 70 (8.24)  
 Secondary school 122 (72.62) 46 (27.38)   560 (83.09) 114 (16.91)   592 (86.68) 91 (13.32)  
 Tertiary 42 (51.22) 40 (48.78)   218 (74.66) 74 (25.34)   279 (81.58) 63 (18.42)  
Location
 Urban 150 (59.52) 102 (40.48) 0.000* 762 (77.36) 223 (22.64) 0.000* 989 (84.10) 187 (15.90) 0.000*
 Rural 289 (85.00) 51 (15.00)   729 (89.56) 85 (10.44)   1228 (94.32) 74 (5.68)  
Occupation
 Homemaker/unemployed 177 (70.52) 74 (29.48) 0.000* 643 (81.39) 147 (18.61) 0.004* 784 (87.99) 107 (12.01) 0.000*
 Semi-skilled 220 (83.02) 45 (16.98)   615 (86.13) 99 (13.87)   1142 (92.69) 90 (7.31)  
 Skilled workers 28 (63.64) 16 (36.36)   152 (82.16) 33 (17.84)   179 (82.87) 37 (17.13)  
 Managerial and Professional 14 (43.75) 18 (56.25)   81 (73.64) 29 (26.36)   112 (80.58) 27 (19.42)  
Household income group
 Bottom 40% (≤ RM 4849) 226 (83.39) 45 (16.61) < 0.001+ 656 (87.58) 93 (12.42) 0.000* 1028 (92.45) 84 (7.55) 0.001*
 Middle 40% – Top 20% (≥ RM 4850) 12 (50.00) 12 (50.00)   60 (73.17) 22 (26.83)   80 (82.47) 17 (17.53)  
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 283 (77.75) 81 (22.25) 0.001* 1068 (82.85) 221 (17.15) 0.000* 1295 (88.22) 173 (11.78) 0.003*
 Previous smoker 64 (80.00) 16 (20.00)   209 (90.48) 22 (9.52)   324 (94.46) 19 (5.54)  
 Current smoker 86 (62.77) 51 (37.23)   193 (75.98) 61 (24.02)   598 (89.66) 69 (10.34)  
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Underweight (< 18.5) 24 (88.89) 3 (11.11) 0.000* 18 (90.00) 2 (10.00) 0.469 66 (98.51) 1 (1.49) 0.000*
 Normal (18.5–22.9) 109 (90.08) 12 (9.92)   225 (85.55) 38 (14.45)   490 (93.51) 34 (6.49)  
 Overweight (23–27.4) 155 (70.14) 66 (29.86)   524 (81.88) 116 (18.13)   871 (88.70) 111 (11.30)  
 Obese (≥ 27.5) 145 (67.76) 69 (32.24)   708 (82.61) 149 (17.39)   765 (87.03) 114 (12.97)  
Waist-hip ratio
 Normal 149 (82.78) 31 (17.22) 0.001* 404 (87.45) 58 (12.55) 0.003* 637 (92.59) 51 (7.41) 0.001*
 Abdominal obesity (Male ≥0.90; female ≥0.85) 263 (69.21) 117 (30.79)   996 (81.37) 228 (18.63)   1442 (88.14) 194 (11.86)  
Dyslipidaemia subtypes
 Hypercholesterolaemia 250 (76.45) 77 (23.55) 0.180 992 (85.81) 164 (14.19) 0.000* 1593 (90.36) 170 (9.64) 0.023*
 High LDL-c 215 (77.62) 62 (22.38) 0.081 846 (87.31) 123 (12.69) 0.000* 1423 (91.39) 134 (8.61) 0.000*
 Hypertriglyceridaemia 175 (72.92) 65 (27.08) 0.506 809 (84.36) 150 (15.64) 0.061 1143 (88.67) 146 (11.33) 0.180
 Low HDL-c 168 (78.14) 47 (21.86) 0.106 635 (87.23) 93 (12.77) 0.000* 909 (91.36) 86 (8.64) 0.012*
  1. Abbreviation: LLM Lipid-lowering medications
  2. + Fisher’s exact test, p < 0.001
  3. * Chi-square test, p < 0.05
  4. ^ for participants without CVD