Skip to main content

Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, N = 11,288

From: Prevalence and factors associated with lipid-lowering medications use for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among Malaysians: the REDISCOVER study

Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics
Age (years), median (IQR) 52 (15)
Age groups (years) (n, %)
 30–39 1233 (10.9)
 40–49 3336 (29.6)
 50–59 3606 (32.0)
  ≥ 60 3113 (27.6)
Gender (n, %)
 Male 4943 (43.8)
 Female 6345 (56.2)
Ethnicity (n, %)
 Malay 8188 (72.5)
 Chinese 1214 (10.8)
 Indian 327 (2.9)
 Indigenous 1559 (13.8)
Education attainment (n^, %)
 No formal education 1556 (15.3)
 Primary school 2766 (27.0)
 Secondary school 3929 (38.4)
 Tertiary 1980 (19.3)
Location (n, %)
 Urban 5857 (51.9)
 Rural 5431 (48.1)
Occupation (n, %)
 Homemaker/unemployed 4334 (38.4)
 Semi-skilled 5181 (45.9)
 Skilled workers 939 (8.3)
 Managerial and Professional 834 (7.4)
Household income group (n^, %)
 Bottom 40% (≤ RM 4849) 4597 (89.2)
 Middle 40% – Top 20% (≥ RM 4850) 554 (10.8)
Smoking status (n^, %)
 Non-smoker 8014 (75.6)
 Previous smoker 1367 (12.9)
 Current smoker 1224 (11.5)
Body mass index (kg/m2) (n^, %)
 Underweight (< 18.5) 392 (3.7)
 Normal (18.5–22.9) 2493 (23.3)
 Overweight (23–27.4) 4144 (38.7)
 Obese (≥ 27.5) 3670 (34.3)
Waist-hip ratio (n^, %)
 Optimal/Normal 4834 (48.1)
 High/Abdominal obesity (Male ≥0.90; female ≥0.85) 5221 (51.9)
Comorbidities (n^, %)
 Diabetes 1888 (17.7)
 Hypertension 5409 (47.9)
 Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) 596 (5.3)
Dyslipidaemia subtypes (n^, %)
 Hypercholesterolaemia 6897 (63.7)
 High LDL-c 6065 (56.0)
 Hypertriglyceridaemia 4084 (37.8)
 Low HDL-c 3870 (35.7)
Self-reported lipid-lowering medication use (n^, %)
 No 9793 (92.4)
 Yes 806 (7.6)
10-year Framingham general cardiovascular risk (FRS-CVD) categories (n*, %)
 Low risk < 10% 5939 (55.6)
 Intermediate risk 10–20% 2252 (21.1)
 High risk > 20% 2501 (23.4)
  1. n^ is not equal to 11,288 due to missing values
  2. n* (for participants without CVD) = 10,692
  3. Ringgit Malaysia (RM) = Malaysian currency