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Table 1 Participant characteristics according to home-schooling status

From: Psychosocial impacts of home-schooling on parents and caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic

  No school-aged children (n=606) Home-schooling children (n=180) Not home-schooling children (n=85)   
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD F p
Psychological distress (DQ5) 10.01 4.88 11.54 5.33 9.82 5.29 6.90 0.001
Work/social impairment (WSAS) 12.89 9.13 16.25 9.83 12.12 8.01 10.40 <0.001
Wellbeing (WHO-5) 52.04 25.08 50.36 23.98 51.53 26.74 0.32 0.730
Age 50.79 17.46 42.51 10.31 56.88 13.46 28.64 <0.001
  n % n % n % χ2 p
Mental health diagnosis        1.61 0.808
  Past 112 18.5% 29 16.1% 12 14.1%   
  Current 143 23.6% 44 24.4% 19 22.4%   
  Never 351 57.9% 107 59.4% 54 63.5%   
Gender        5.27 0.261
  Male 310 51.2% 87 48.3% 48 56.5%   
  Female 296 48.8% 92 51.1% 37 43.5%   
  Prefer not to answer 0 0.0% 1 0.6% 0 0.0%   
Educational attainment        22.74 0.004
  Secondary School 173 28.5% 35 19.4% 24 28.2%   
  Certificate or diploma 219 36.1% 54 30.0% 37 43.5%   
  Bachelor’s degree 180 29.7% 82 45.6% 23 27.1%   
  Higher degree 30 5.0% 7 3.9% 1 1.2%   
  Prefer not to answer 4 0.7% 2 1.1% 0 0.0%