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Table 2 Results of the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of case–control and cohort studies in the meta-analyses

From: Dietary patterns and risk of bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Case–control studies Selection Comparability Exposure  
Case
definition
Representativeness of the cases Selection of Controls Definition of Controls Control for most important factor and Control for any additional factor Ascertainment of exposure Same method of ascertainment for cases and controls Non-Response rate Total score
Bravi 2018 [12] (1) (1) (0) (1) (2) (0) (1) (1) 7
Brinkman 2011 [13] (1) (1) (1) (1) (2) (0) (1) (1) 8
Shivappa 2017 [35] (1) (1) (0) (1) (2) (0) (1) (1) 7
Shivappa 2019 [36] (1) (1) (0) (1) (2) (0) (1) (1) 7
Stefani 2008 [9] (1) (1) (0) (1) (2) (0) (1) (1) 7
Cohort studies Selection Comparability Outcome  
  Representativeness of the exposed cohort Selection of the non-exposed cohort Ascertainment of exposure Outcome was not present as baseline Control for most important factor and Control for any additional factor Assessment of outcome Adequate follow-up period for outcome Adequacy of follow up of cohorts Total score
Abufaraj 2019 [34] (1) (1) (0) (1) (2) (0) (1) (1) 7
Buckland 2014 (1) (1) (0) (1) (2) (1) (1) (1) 8
Dianatinasab 2020 [10] (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 8
Dugu 2016 [17] (1) (1) (0) (0) (2) (1) (1) (1) 7
Schulpen 2019 [15] (1) (1) (0) (1) (2) (1) (1) (1) 8
Westhoff 2018 [11] (1) (1) (0) (0) (2) (0) (1) (1) 6
Witlox 2020 [16] (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 8