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Table 1 Operational definitions of variables

From: Physical inactivity in early pregnancy and the determinants in an urban city setting of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

No Word/Phrase Operational Definition Measurement Scale
1 Physical inactivity
(Dependent variable)
Less than 7.5 METsa*hour/week or 150 min of moderate to vigorous activities in a week [1] Yes/No
2 Age Age at first antenatal booking based on identity card Number in years
3 Marital status Marital status verified by a legal marriage certificate Married
4 Primigravida Pregnant for the first time Yes/No
5 Ethnicity Ethnicity as written in identity card Malay
6 Education level Refers to the highest level of formal education No formal education
Primary school
Secondary school
Tertiary education
7 Household income Combined household income according to the Department of Statistics Malaysia [38] categorized into low income (B40b), middle income (M40c) and high income (T20d) B40b < RM4850
M40c RM4850-RM10959
T20d ≥ RM10960
8 Caloric intake per day Total energy intake in one day, measured by 24-h dietary recall (a proxy to hyperemesis gravidarum) Numerical in Kilocalorie per day (kcal/day)
9 BMIe at booking Body mass index at booking at first trimester Numerical in kg/m2
10 Occupation Occupation reported by subject at booking Public
11 Husband’s occupation Husband’s occupation reported by subject at booking Public
12 Medical problem in previous pregnancy Any medical problem or complications encountered during previous completed pregnancy (gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, anemia in pregnancy etc.) Yes/No
13 History of miscarriage Any experience of spontaneous pregnancy loss before completed 22 weeks of gestation Yes/No
14 Grand multigravida Pregnant for the sixth time or more Yes/No
  1. a METs metabolic equivalents
  2. b B40 - bottom 40% earners in the population
  3. c M40 - middle 40% earners in the population
  4. d T20 - top 20% earners in the population
  5. e BMI body mass index