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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of Serious Mental Illness and Low Mental Wellbeing

From: Working mothers during COVID-19: a cross-sectional study on mental health status and associations with the receipt of employment benefits

  Kessler 6 SWEMWBS
  Serious Mental Illness Low Mental Wellbeing
Characteristic OR 95% CI AOR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI AOR 95% CI p-value
Employer provided benefits           
Yes Reference          
No 1.82 (1.28–2.60) 1.50 (1.03–2.20) 0.036 1.45 (2.22–2.22) 1.38 (1.00–1.89) 0.049
Number of benefits received           
None Reference          
One 0.78 (0.41–1.49) 0.91 (0.46–1.74) 0.775 0.95 (0.55–1.65) 0.98 (0.56–1.74) 0.958
Two 0.54 (0.31–0.94) 0.64 (0.35–1.14) 0.124 0.75 (0.48–1.16) 0.77 (0.49–1.21) 0.262
Three 0.60 (0.36–1.02) 0.72 (0.41–1.14) 0.231 0.61 (0.39–0.94) 0.65 (0.41–1.03) 0.065
Four or more 0.39 (0.22–0.72) 0.50 (0.27–0.93) 0.031 0.60 (0.39–0.95) 0.64 (0.39–1.02) 0.062
Employer provided benefit received           
Flexible hours/schedule to help with caregiving           
Yes Reference          
No 1.99 (1.38–2.88) 1.64 (1.10–2.42) 0.014 1.47 (1.09–2.29) 1.40 (1.02–1.93) 0.038
Flexible work location           
Yes Reference          
No 1.47 (1.09–1.99) 1.25 (0.83–1.86) 0.283 1.25 (0.92–1.71) 1.17 (0.85–1.63) 0.336
Extra paid time off           
Yes Reference          
No 1.66 (0.94–2.91) 1.55 (0.87–2.77) 0.137 1.47 (0.95–2.29) 1.49 (0.95–2.34) 0.084
Mental health and wellbeing programs           
Yes Reference          
No 2.09 (1.28–3.41) 1.72 (1.03–2.86) 0.037 1.58 (1.09–2.29) 1.45 (0.99–2.14) 0.059
Work environment           
Home or flexible location Reference         
Office or warehouse setting 0.85 (0.54–1.35) 0.80 (0.50–1.27) 0.345 0.98 (0.68–1.42) 0.95 (0.65–1.38) 0.781
Educational establishment 1.33 (0.70–2.54) 1.05 (0.23–2.09) 0.888 1.15 (0.65–2.03) 0.98 (0.54–1.78) 0.946
Health care establishment 0.59 (0.32–1.10) 0.57 (0.30–1.08) 0.083 0.75 (0.47–1.21) 0.72 (0.44–1.18) 0.190
Setting with regular public interaction 3.26 (1.61–6.60) 2.17 (1.00–4.69) 0.049 1.22 (0.61–2.25) 0.98 (0.47–2.07) 0.966
Other 1.82 (0.66–5.02) 1.04 (0.34–3.17) 0.940 0.97 (0.37–2.57) 0.50 (0.25–1.97) 0.702
Age           
18–34 years old Reference          
35–44 years old 1.25 (0.81–1.94) 1.50 (0.95–2.38) 0.080 1.08 (0.76–1.54) 1.18 (0.82–1.70) 0.372
> 44 years old 1.69 (0.95–3.01) 1.76 (0.94–3.29) 0.076 0.85 (0.51–1.42) 0.91 (0.53–1.56) 0.732
Race / Ethnicity           
White Reference          
Asian 1.25 (0.65–2.41) 1.56 (0.78–3.11) 0.205 0.67 (0.36–1.24) 0.76 (0.41–1.43) 0.395
Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) 0.94 (0.44–2.00) 0.70 (0.31–1.58) 0.389 0.49 (0.24–0.99) 0.44 (0.21–0.91) 0.027
Hispanic/Latina 1.22 (0.47–3.13) 1.00 (0.37–2.72) 1.000 1.05 (0.46–2.39) 0.94 (0.40–2.21 0.892
Annual household income           
Less than $34,999 Reference          
$35,000 to $49,999 0.87 (0.32–2.41) 0.95 (0.33–2.75) 0.930 1.57 (0.57–4.34) 1.42 (0.49–4.08) 0.511
$50,000 to $74,999 0.37 (0.16–0.84) 0.41 (0.16–1.02) 0.056 0.91 (0.42–1.98) 0.83 (0.35–2.00) 0.680
$75,000 to $99,999 0.42 (0.19–0.94) 0.44 (0.17–1.17) 0.100 1.12 (0.52–2.43) 0.99 (0.39–2.49) 0.989
$100,000 to $149,999 0.25 (0.12–0.53) 0.27 (0.11–0.69) 0.007 0.77 (0.38–1.57) 0.71 (0.29–1.73) 0.452
Over $150,000 0.23 (0.11–0.46) 0.22 (0.09–0.57) 0.002 0.65 (0.33–1.28) 0.61 (0.25–1.48 0.276
Significant disruption in access to childcare/schooling           
Yes Reference          
No 1.74 (1.19–2.54) 1.96 (1.31–2.95) 0.001 1.63 (1.20–2.23) 1.64 (1.18–2.26) 0.003
  1. Statistically significant p-values bolded
  2. Serious Mental Illness was defined with the following widely accepted criteria: Kessler 6 psychological distress score ≥ 13; Low Mental Wellbeing was defined with the following widely accepted criteria: SWEMWBS score of 7–19 Adjusted logistic regression models included the following independent variables: age, race/ethnicity, household income, educational attainment, and marital status