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Table 3 Frequencies of Kessler-6 and SWEMWBS mental health categories

From: Working mothers during COVID-19: a cross-sectional study on mental health status and associations with the receipt of employment benefits

   Kessler 6 SWEMWBS
   No Mental Illness MMI SMI    High Mental Wellbeing Average Mental Wellbeing Low Mental Wellbeing   
Characteristic Total n % n % n % Effect sizea P-valueb n % n % n % Effect sizea P-valueb
Benefits Characteristics                  
Employer provided benefits                  
Yes 323 63 (19.5) 171 (52.9) 89 (27.6) 0.136 0.001 7 (2.2) 174 (53.9) 142 (44.0) 0.091 0.050
No 405 111 (27.4) 224 (55.3) 70 (17.3)    11 (2.7) 252 (62.2) 142 (35.1)   
Number of Benefits Received                  
None 323 63 (19.5) 171 (52.9) 89 (27.6) 0.119 0.009 7 (2.2) 174 (53.9) 142 (44.0) 0.087 0.196
One 61 11 (18.0) 36 (59.0) 14 (23.0)    0 (0.0) 35 (57.4) 26 (42.6)   
Two 111 28 (25.2) 64 (57.7) 19 (17.1)    3 (2.7) 67 (60.4) 41 (36.9)   
Three 118 38 (32.2) 58 (49.2) 22 (18.6)    3 (2.5) 77 (65.3) 38 (32.2)   
Four or more 115 34 (29.6) 66 (57.4) 15 (13.0)    5 (4.3) 73 (63.5) 37 (32.2)   
Receipt of Benefit Type                  
Flexible hours/schedule to help with caregiving                  
Yes 337 96 (28.5) 188 (55.8) 53 (15.7) 0.151 <0.001 10 (3.0) 212 (62.9) 114 (33.8)   0.038
No 391 78 (19.9) 207 (52.9) 106 (27.1)    8 (2.0) 214 (54.7) 169 (43.2)   
Flexible work location                  
Yes 272 77 (28.3) 147 (54.0) 48 (17.6) 0.098 0.030 9 (3.3) 166 (61.0) 97 (35.7) 0.064 0.229
No 456 97 (21.3) 248 (54.4) 111 (24.3)    9 (2.0) 260 (57.0) 187 (41.0)   
Extra paid time off                  
Yes 105 34 (32.4) 55 (52.4) 16 (15.2) 0.092 0.045 4 (3.8) 68 (64.8) 33 (31.4) 0.069 0.173
No 623 140 (22.5) 340 (54.6) 143 (23.0)    14 (2.2) 358 (57.5) 251 (40.3)   
Mental health well-being programs                  
Yes 165 47 (28.5) 96 (58.2) 22 (13.3) 0.115 0.008 4 (2.4) 110 (66.7) 51 (30.9) 0.091 0.049
No 593 127 (21.4) 299 (50.4) 137 (23.1)    14 (2.4) 316 (53.3) 233 (39.3)   
Work hours                  
Full-time 621 145 (23.3) 346 (55.7) 130 (20.9) 0.072 0.151 13 (2.1) 360 (58.0) 248 (39.9) 0.070 0.166
Part-time 107 29 (27.1) 49 (45.8) 29 (27.1)    5 (4.7) 66 (61.7) 36 (33.6)   
  1. Kessler 6 cut points for MMI (Moderate Mental Illness), and SMI (Severe Mental Illness) were 5+ and 13+, respectively; higher scores indicate higher levels of psychological distress; SWEMWBS cut points for High and Low Mental Wellbeing were of 28–35 and 7–19, respectively; lower scores indicate higher levels of mental wellbeing
  2. a Effect size calculated using Cramer’s V
  3. b P-value based on Chi-squared tests; Statistically significant p-values bolded