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Table 2 Sample characteristics by receipt of employment benefits

From: Working mothers during COVID-19: a cross-sectional study on mental health status and associations with the receipt of employment benefits

  Overall sample Did not receive benefit(s) Received ≥ 1 benefit(s) Effect sizea P-valueb
  n % n % n %   
Total 728 100% 323 44.4% 405 55.6%
Demographics         
Age         
18–34 years old 185 25.4% 98 53.0% 87 47.0% 0.111 0.012
35–44 years old 445 61.1% 179 40.2% 266 59.8%   
> 44 years old 98 13.5% 46 46.9% 52 53.1%   
Race/ethnicity         
Asian 51 7.0% 25 49.0% 26 51.0% 0.028 0.906
Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) 44 6.0% 20 45.5% 24 54.5%   
Hispanic/Latina 24 3.3% 11 45.8% 13 54.2%   
White 609 83.7% 267 43.8% 342 56.2%   
Highest level of education         
Some college or less 40 5.5% 31 77.5% 9 22.5% 0.172 < 0.001
Associate degree 28 3.8% 15 53.6% 13 46.4%   
Bachelor’s degree 182 25.0% 70 38.5% 112 61.5%   
Master’s degree 334 45.9% 143 42.8% 191 57.2%   
Doctorate 144 19.8% 64 44.4% 80 55.6%   
Annual household income         
Less than $34,999 38 5.2% 29 76.3% 9 23.7% 0.262 < 0.001
$35,000 to $49,999 25 3.4% 20 80.0% 5 20.0%   
$50,000 to $74,999 80 11.0% 44 55.0% 36 45.0%   
$75,000 to $99,999 80 11.0% 43 53.8% 37 46.3%   
$100,000 to $149,999 169 23.2% 62 36.7% 107 63.3%   
Over $150,000 336 46.2% 125 37.2% 211 62.8%   
Geographic Region         
Midwest 134 18.4% 75 56.0% 59 44.0% 0.121 0.013
Northeast 318 43.7% 128 40.3% 190 59.7%   
South 186 25.5% 85 45.7% 101 54.3%   
West 90 12.4% 35 38.9% 55 61.1%   
Work Characteristics         
Work Hours         
Full-time 621 85.3% 270 43.5% 351 56.5% 0.043 0.244
Part-time 107 14.7% 53 49.5% 54 50.5%   
Work environment         
Home or flexible location 339 46.6% 126 37.2% 213 62.8% 0.219 < 0.001
Office or warehouse setting 179 24.6% 70 39.1% 109 60.9%   
Educational establishment 56 7.7% 30 53.6% 26 46.4%   
Health care establishment 100 13.7% 67 67.0% 33 33.0%   
Setting with regular public interaction 36 4.9% 21 58.3% 15 41.7%   
Other 18 2.5% 9 50.0% 9 50.0%   
Marital Status         
Married or in a domestic partnership 656 90.1% 281 42.8% 375 57.2% 0.093 0.012
Single, separated, divorced, or widowed 72 9.9% 42 58.3% 30 41.7%