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Table 3 Multinomial logistic regression - factors associated with habitual sleep duration in US adults with hypertension

From: Factors associated with habitual sleep duration in US adults with hypertension: a cross-sectional study of the 2015–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  Short (vs. adequate) sleep duration Long (vs. adequate) sleep duration
Crude RRR (95%CI) a P RRR (95% CI) b P Crude RRR (95%CI) a P RRR (95% CI) b P
Individual-level factors
Age
  18–44 REF   REF   REF   REF  
  45–64 1.09 (0.86–1.39) 0.45 1.20 (0.96, 1.51) 0.11 0.98 (0.68–1.41) 0.90 0.72 (0.46–1.13) 0.15
   ≥ 65 0.58 (0.47–0.72) < 0.001 0.63 (0.45–0.91) 0.01 1.76 (1.31–2.36) < 0.001 0.74 (0.50–1.09) 0.12
Female (vs. Male) 0.70 (0.58–0.85) 0.001 0.70 (0.56, 0.88) 0.003 1.60 (1.26–2.03) < 0.001 1.24 (1.00–1.54) 0.049
Comorbidities
  Heart disease (vs. no heart disease) 1.20 (0.82–1.76) 0.33 1.20 (0.80–1.78) 0.36 1.57 (1.15–2.17) 0.01 0.88 (0.59–1.30) 0.50
  Stroke (vs. no stroke) 0.97 (0.64–1.48) 0.89 0.79 (0.54–1.16) 0.21 2.18 (1.56–3.04) < 0.001 1.09 (0.78–1.54) 0.60
 COPD or asthma (vs. no COPD or asthma) 1.19 (0.90–1.58) 0.20 1.10 (0.83–1.47) 0.49 1.67 (1.23–2.26) 0.002 0.98 (0.72–1.35) 0.91
  Arthritis (vs. no arthritis) 0.99 (0.83–1.19) 0.96 1.06 (0.89–1.26) 0.52 1.51 (1.17–1.95) 0.002 0.93 (0.71–1.21) 0.60
  Diabetes mellitus (vs. no diabetes mellitus) 1.14 (0.84–1.52) 0.36 1.08 (0.83–1.40) 0.55 1.66 (1.22–2.25) 0.002 1.37 (1.00–1.88) 0.05
  CKD (vs. no CKD) 0.90 (0.68–1.21) 0.49 1.18 (0.86–1.61) 0.31 2.18 (1.70–2.79) < 0.001 1.48 (1.14–1.92) 0.01
Depressive symptoms
  Minimal or none REF   REF   REF   REF  
  Mild 1.21 (0.94–1.56) 0.13 1.12 (0.88–1.44) 0.34 1.83 (1.32–2.53) 0.001 1.35 (0.95–1.93) 0.09
  Moderate 1.73 (1.08–2.77) 0.03 1.61 (0.99–2.61) 0.05 2.32 (1.63–3.30) < 0.001 1.62 (1.08–2.44) 0.02
  Moderately severe to severe 1.91 (1.13–3.23) 0.02 1.66 (0.88–3.14) 0.11 3.62 (2.07–6.34) < 0.001 1.89 (1.05–3.43) 0.04
Help-seeking for sleeping difficulty 1.26 (1.02–1.56) 0.03 1.25 (1.02–1.53) 0.03 1.20 (0.91–1.59) 0.18 0.84 (0.61–1.16) 0.28
Body mass index (BMI)
   < 25 REF   REF   REF   REF  
  25 - < 30 0.99 (0.71–1.38) 0.94 0.98 (0.70–1.37) 0.88 0.89 (0.65–1.21) 0.44 1.00 (0.72–1.39) 0.99
  30 - < 35 1.01 (0.70–1.46) 0.95 0.93 (0.65–1.34) 0.70 0.92 (0.61–1.39) 0.68 1.06 (0.69–1.62) 0.78
  35 - < 40 1.08 (0.75–1.55) 0.67 1.02 (0.70–1.48) 0.93 0.71 (0.44–1.12) 0.14 0.71 (0.42–1.22) 0.21
   ≥ 40 1.34 (0.99–1.83) 0.06 1.19 (0.85–1.66) 0.30 0.96 (0.63–1.46) 0.83 0.91 (0.56–1.45) 0.67
Alcohol intake
  None REF   REF   REF   REF  
  Moderate 0.83 (0.66–1.05) 0.11 0.84 (0.67–1.05) 0.11 0.60 (0.47–0.78) < 0.001 0.99 (0.76–1.30) 0.96
  Heavy 1.00 (0.77–1.30) 0.99 0.89 (0.68–1.17) 0.38 0.58 (0.43–0.78) 0.001 0.91 (0.64–1.31) 0.61
Cigarette smoking
  Never smoker REF   REF   REF   REF  
  Current smoker 1.61 (1.24–2.08) 0.001 1.25 (0.93–1.68) 0.14 1.60 (1.13–2.29) 0.01 1.16 (0.82–1.63) 0.39
  Former smoker 0.94 (0.76–1.16) 0.55 0.88 (0.72–1.07) 0.19 1.06 (0.79–1.42) 0.67 0.96 (0.72–1.29) 0.78
Physical activity level
  Sufficient REF   REF   REF   REF  
  None 1.28 (0.96–1.70) 0.09 1.18 (0.89–1.57) 0.23 1.85 (1.27–2.70) 0.002 1.39 (0.90–2.13) 0.13
  Low 0.85 (0.60–1.20) 0.33 0.82 (0.59–1.15) 0.25 1.00 (0.66–1.50) 0.99 0.91 (0.59–1.40) 0.65
  High 1.32 (0.98–1.77) 0.07 1.14 (0.85–1.54) 0.37 0.92 (0.57–1.46) 0.71 1.05 (0.65–1.71) 0.84
Social-level factors
Race/Ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic White REF   REF   REF   REF  
  Non-Hispanic Black 2.11 (1.70–2.61) < 0.001 2.05 (1.59–2.63) < 0.001 1.38 (0.99–1.92) 0.05 1.13 (0.81–1.57) 0.47
  Hispanic 1.33 (1.06–1.67) 0.02 1.16 (0.82–1.64) 0.39 1.17 (0.89–1.52) 0.24 1.08 (0.80–1.46) 0.62
  Non-Hispanic Asian 1.13 (0.87–1.46) 0.34 1.16 (0.74–1.81) 0.51 0.89 (0.65–1.21) 0.44 1.12 (0.68–1.84) 0.65
  Other 1.42 (0.97–2.09) 0.07 1.24 (0.79–1.95) 0.34 0.89 (0.51–1.56) 0.68 0.78 (0.48–1.28) 0.31
Marital status
  Married/Living with partner REF   REF   REF   REF  
  Unmarried 1.16 (0.95–1.42) 0.15 1.14 (0.95–1.37) 0.14 1.56 (1.20–2.04) 0.002 1.06 (0.78–1.45) 0.71
Nativity
  US-born REF   REF   REF   REF  
  Not US-born 1.12 (0.90–1.40) 0.28 1.16 (0.83–1.63) 0.37 0.86 (0.65–1.12) 0.24 0.71 (0.47–1.07) 0.10
Education Level
  College graduate REF   REF   REF   REF  
  Some college 1.36 (1.01–1.84) 0.04 1.44 (0.92–1.68) 0.15 1.19 (0.69–2.05) 0.34 0.85 (0.51–1.43) 0.53
  High school graduate 1.33 (0.98–1.81) 0.07 1.17 (0.85–1.60) 0.32 2.20 (1.24–3.88) 0.01 1.42 (0.86–2.34) 0.17
 Less than high school 1.47 (1.10–1.97) 0.01 1.21 (0.88–1.67) 0.24 3.14 (1.76–5.63) < 0.001 1.59 (0.88–2.89) 0.12
Income to poverty ratio
   ≥ 4.00 REF   REF   REF   REF  
  2.00–3.99 1.38 (1.07–1.79) 0.02 1.21 (0.95–1.56) 0.12 1.64 (0.99–2.73) 0.06 1.20 (0.74–1.95) 0.45
  1.00–1.99 1.20 (0.92–1.55) 0.17 0.94 (0.69–1.28) 0.70 2.53 (1.52–4.19) 0.001 1.28 (0.77–2.14) 0.33
   < 1.00 1.47 (1.09–1.97) 0.01 0.97 (0.67–1.39) 0.85 3.70 (2.11–6.46) < 0.001 1.45 (0.82–2.58) 0.19
Has health insurance
  Yes REF   REF   REF   REF  
  No 1.64 (1.24–2.17) 0.001 1.30 (0.97–1.75) 0.08 1.19 (0.80–1.76) 0.37 1.09 (0.75–1.59) 0.65
Employment Status
  Works 35–44 h/week REF   REF   REF   REF  
  Works < 35 h/week 0.84 (0.58–1.20) 0.32 0.88 (0.61–1.28) 0.50 1.77 (1.15–2.73) 0.01 1.71 (1.07–2.73) 0.03
  Works ≥45 h/week 1.83 (1.34–2.51) 0.001 1.81 (1.32–2.48) 0.001 0.58 (0.28–1.19) 0.13 0.66 (0.34–1.29) 0.21
  Not working – Health reasons 1.55 (1.10–2.18) 0.02 1.12 (0.77–1.63) 0.53 7.09 (4.62–10.9) < 0.001 4.87 (2.89–8.22) < 0.001
  Not working - Retired 0.87 (0.69–1.09) 0.21 1.41 (1.01–1.98) 0.04 3.82 (2.42–6.04) < 0.001 3.46 (2.18–5.49) < 0.001
  Not working - Other reason 0.91 (0.70–1.19) 0.48 0.85 (0.65–1.12) 0.23 4.33 (2.66–7.05) < 0.001 3.29 (1.84–5.88) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: RRR relative risk ratio, P p-value, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. aUnadjusted model
  3. bAdjusted model – each covariate adjusted for all other variables in the table