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Table 2 Social-level characteristics by sleep duration from NHANES (2015–2018) sample of US adults with hypertensiona

From: Factors associated with habitual sleep duration in US adults with hypertension: a cross-sectional study of the 2015–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Characteristics   Sleep duration  
Overall Short Adequate Long P-value
Total, n (%) 5660 (100%) 1444 (23.6) 3495 (65.7) 721 (10.7)  
Race/Ethnicity, %
 Non-Hispanic White 1905 (64.1) 56.4 66.9 63.6 <  0.001
 Non-Hispanic Black 1474 (13.3) 19.4 10.9 14.4
 Hispanic 1381 (12.9) 13.9 12.4 13.8
 Non-Hispanic Asian 652 (5.4) 5.3 5.6 4.7
 Other 248 (4.3) 5.0 4.2 3.5
Marital status, %
 Married/Living with partner 3301 (63.1) 61.7 65.1 54.3 0.005
 Unmarried 2320 (36.9) 38.3 34.9 45.7
Nativity status, %
 US-born 3964 (83.2) 81.6 83.3 85.4 0.211
 Not US-born 1696 (16.8) 18.4 16.7 14.6
Education Level, %
 College graduate 1215 (26.9) 23.4 29.6 18.3 <  0.001
 Some college 1732 (33.2) 36.2 33.5 24.6
 High school graduate 1354 (26.0) 26.1 24.7 33.5
 Less than high school 1350 (13.9) 14.3 12.2 23.6
Income to poverty ratio, %
  ≥ 4.00 1165 (36.6) 32.9 40.2 22.3 <  0.001
 2.00–3.99 1373 (29.8) 33.7 29.0 26.5
 1.00–1.99 1447 (21.1) 20.2 20.2 28.8
  < 1.00 986 (12.5) 13.2 10.6 22.4
Employment Status, %
 Works 35–44 h/week 1184 (23.8) 23.3 26.2 10.3 <  0.001
 Works < 35 h/week 670 (12.1) 9.9 13.3 9.2
 Works ≥45 h/week 815 (18.5) 28.3 17.4 3.9
 Not working – health reasons 743 (10.3) 11.1 8.1 22.4
 Not working - retired 1623 (26.5) 20.5 26.5 39.7
 Not working – other reasons 625 (8.8) 6.9 8.5 14.5
Has health insurance, %
 Yes 4965 (89.8) 86.3 91.1 89.6 0.003
 No 685 (10.2) 13.7 8.9 10.4
  1. aData are expressed as an unweighted number of participants and weighted percentages