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Table 1 Individual-level characteristics by sleep duration from NHANES (2015–2018) sample of US adults with hypertension a

From: Factors associated with habitual sleep duration in US adults with hypertension: a cross-sectional study of the 2015–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Characteristics   Sleep duration  
Overall Short Adequate Long P-value
Total, n (%) 5660 (100%) 1444 (23.6) 3495 (65.7) 721 (10.7)  
Sex, %
 Male, 2927 (52.1) 60.0 51.3 39.7 <  0.001
 Female 2733 (47.9) 40.0 48.7 60.3
Age, mean years (SE) 56.1 (0.4) 53.7 (0.5) 56.2 (0.5) 60.4 (0.8)  
Age category, %
 18–44 1159 (23.8) 26.3 23.6 18.9 < 0.001
 45–64 2356 (43.7) 51.8 42.5 33.3
 65 and above 2145 (32.5) 21.9 33.9 47.8
Comorbidities, %
 Heart disease 763 (11.4) 12.3 10.4 15.5 0.073
 Stroke 361 (5.1) 4.5 4.6 9.6 <  0.001
 COPD or asthma 847 (14.4) 15.3 13.1 20.1 0.006
 Arthritis 2365 (41.8) 40.6 40.7 50.9 0.005
 Diabetes mellitus 1547 (22.1) 22.8 20.6 30.1 0.015
 Chronic kidney disease 745 (11.2) 9.5 10.4 20.1 <  0.001
Depressive symptoms, %
 Minimal or none 3933 (74.7) 71.7 77.7 62.4 <  0.001
 Mild 890 (16.5) 16.9 15.4 22.6
 Moderate 296 (5.8) 7.5 4.7 8.7
 Moderately severe to severe 184 (3.0) 3.9 2.2 6.3
Help-seeking for sleeping difficulty, % 1859 (37.2) 41.0 35.5 39.8 0.066
BMI category, %
  < 25 1109 (18.1) 17.2 18.1 20.2 0.439
 25 - < 30 1755 (30.5) 29.2 31.0 30.7
 30 - < 35 1349 (25.7) 25.0 25.9 26.6
 35 - < 40 737 (13.8) 14.5 14.1 10.9
  ≥ 40 620 (11.8) 14.1 10.9 11.7
Smoking status, %
 Never smoker 3066 (52.8) 50.6 54.2 48.9 <  0.001
 Current smoker 1005 (17.2) 22.1 14.7 21.3
 Former smoker 1583 (30.0) 27.3 31.1 29.8
Alcohol intake, %
 None 1973 (29.4) 29.8 27.6 39.2 0.001
 Moderate 1827 (38.6) 35.8 40.4 34.4
 Heavy 1457 (32.0) 34.4 32.0 26.4
Physical activity level, %
 Sufficient 642 (11.7) 10.3 12.4 10.6 <  0.001
 None 1770 (26.2) 26.0 24.3 38.6
 Low 803 (13.7) 10.6 15.0 12.8
 High 2445 (48.3) 53.1 48.3 38.0
  1. Abbreviations: SE standard error, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, BMI body mass index
  2. aData are expressed as an unweighted number of participants and weighted percentages and means