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Table 1 Cluster characteristics of refugee accommodation in Germany, 2018

From: Association between housing and health of refugees and asylum seekers in Germany: explorative cluster and mixed model analysis

Cluster*   1 2 3 4
n 574 360 411 190
Political dimension
Asylum status
Rejected n (%) 18 (3.1) 44 (12.1) 1 (0.2) 10 (5.3)
Pending n (%) 40 (7) 96 (26.7) 67 (16.3) 22 (11.6)
Recognized n (%) 516 (89.9) 220 (61.1) 343 (83.5) 158 (83.2)
Free choice of residence n (%) 3 (0.5) 42 (11.7) 409 (99.5) 3 (1.6)
Receiving housing allowances n (%) 87 (15.2) 50 (13.9) 65 (15.8) 18 (9.5)
Paying rent n (%) 82 (14.3) 67 (18.6) 149 (36.3) 15 (7.9)
Societal / environmental dimension
Area type
Residential area n (%) 429 (74.7) 196 (54.4) 271 (65.9) 147 (77.4)
Mixed area n (%) 141 (24.6) 97 (26.9) 138 (33.6) 39 (20.5)
Industrial area n (%) 4 (0.7) 67 (18.6) 2 (0.5) 4 (2.1)
Security in the neighbourhood
Feeling not safe n (%) 22 (3.8) 35 (9.7) 23 (5.6) 1 (0.5)
No contact to locals n (%) 284 (49.5) 253 (70.3) 175 (42.6) 80 (42.1)
Accessibility of public transport
Bus n (%) 562 (97.9) 337 (93.6) 391 (95.1) 156 (82.1)
Subway / tram (way) n (%) 219 (38.2) 140 (38.9) 112 (27.3) 5 (2.6)
Train n (%) 511 (89) 230 (63.9) 308 (74.9) 7 (3.7)
Leisure time activities n (%) 166 (28.9) 75 (20.8) 159 (38.7) 34 (17.9)
Institutional dimension
Dwelling type
Temporary collective accommodation n (%)   82 (22.8)   
Permanent collective accommodation n (%)   271 (75.3) 2 (0.5)  
Multi-story buildings n (%) 154 (26.8) 5 (1.4) 96 (23.4) 23 (12.1)
Apartment blocks n (%) 317 (55.2) 2 (0.6) 227 (55.2) 102 (53.7)
Terraced houses / detached houses n (%) 103 (17.9)   86 (20.9) 65 (34.2)
Number of residents per unit / household Mean (SD) 3 (1.5) 5.1 (7.3) 3.2 (1.8) 3.2 (1.6)
Living space (in sqm) Mean (SD) 77.6 (28.7) 35.4 (32.8) 81.7 (29) 80.9 (28.2)
Number of rooms
No separate rooms / units n (%)   95 (26.4)   
One separate room n (%) 52 (9.1) 262 (72.8) 36 (8.8) 10 (5.3)
At least two separate rooms n (%) 522 (90.9) 3 (0.8) 375 (91.2) 180 (94.7)
Furnishment
Self-equipped n (%) 462 (80.5) 56 (15.6) 329 (80) 137 (72.1)
Furnished n (%) 89 (15.5) 301 (83.6) 72 (17.5) 41 (21.6)
Not specified n (%) 23 (4) 3 (0.8) 10 (2.4) 12 (6.3)
Inviting friends n (%) 330 (57.5) 175 (48.6) 292 (71) 126 (66.3)
Time spent in boredom (hours per week) Mean (SD) 0.8 (1.5) 1.3 (2.5) 0.6 (1.2) 0.9 (1.8)
Individual dimension
Satisfaction with living situation Mean (SD) 8.3 (2.6) 5.4 (3.3) 8.6 (2.4) 8.3 (2.5)
Satisfaction with allocated place of residence
Unsatisfied n (%) 79 (13.8) 69 (19.2)   26 (13.7)
Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied n (%) 65 (11.3) 55 (15.3)   27 (14.2)
Satisfied n (%) 427 (74.4) 194 (53.9) 2 (0.5) 134 (70.5)
Not applicable n (%) 3 (0.5) 42 (11.7) 409 (99.5) 3 (1.6)
Satisfaction with size of the dwelling
Too small n (%) 216 (37.6) 4 (1.1) 99 (24.1) 57 (30)
Suitable n (%) 342 (59.6) 3 (0.8) 292 (71) 127 (66.8)
Too large n (%) 16 (2.8)   18 (4.4) 6 (3.2)
Not applicable n (%)   353 (98.1) 2 (0.5)  
Sense of belonging Mean (SD) 3.5 (1.2) 3.3 (1.2) 3.6 (1.2) 3.5 (1)
  1. Data based on the IAB-BAMF-SOEP study (Kühne et al., 2019). *Cluster numbering used for reference to the text and Table 2 and 3