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Table 4 Multivariate linear associations between studied variables and mental-health indicators

From: Family aspects, physical fitness, and physical activity associated with mental-health indicators in adolescents

  Stress Depression Trait anxiety State anxiety Happiness HRQL Subjective wellness
Variables β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Age 0.50 (0.3; 0.7)** Not included 0.23 (0.1; 0.4)** 0.14 (0.0; 0.3)* Not included −1.2 (− 1.6; − 0.8)** −1.56 (− 2.4; − 0.7)**
Sex (Ref. Boys) 1.09 (0.6; 1.6)** 0.95 (0.6; 1.3)** 0.58 (0.2; 1.0)** 1.23 (0.9; 1.6)** Not included −4.01 (−5.2; −2.8)** −1.60 (− 4.04; 0.8)
Location (Ref. Rural) 1.41 (0.8; 2.0)** 1.18 (0.7; 1.7)** Not included Not included Not included −1.74 (− 3.4; − 0.1)* − 3.98 (−7.1; − 0.9)*
Overweight (Ref. Normal) Not included Not included Not included 0.22 (−0.3; 0.7) Not included Not included −3.05 (−6.3; 0.2)
Family Affluence Scale (tertiles) Not included 0.07 (−0.2; 0.3) Not included Not included Not included 0.78 (−0.0; 1.6) Not included
Family structure (Ref. Other)        
Single parent −0.68 (−1.6; 0.3) −0.34 (− 1.1; 0.4) Not included −0.25 (− 1.0; 0.5) Not included −0.39 (−2.8; 2.0) Not included
Nuclear −1.08 (−2.0; − 0.2)* −0.1 (− 0.7; 0.7) Not included −0.22 (− 0.9; 0.4) Not included 0.49 (− 1.8; 2.8) Not included
Family Apgar score −0.11 (− 0.2; − 0.1)** −0.20 (− 0.2; − 0.2)** −0.13 (− 0.2; − 0.1)** −0.12 (− 0.2; − 0.1)** 0.09 (0.1; 0.1)** 1.13 (0.1; 1.3)** 1.67 (1.4; 1.9)**
Physical Fitness (z-score) −0.80 (− 1.2; − 0.4)** −0.27 (− 0.6; 0.0) Not included −0.45 (− 0.7; − 0.2)** Not included 1.75 (0.8; 2.7)** 0.74 (− 1.1; 2.6)
Physical activity score 0.07 (− 0.2; 0.4) −0.27 (− 0.5; − 0.0)* −0.39 (− 0.6; − 0.1)** −0.30 (− 0.5; − 0.1)* 0.14 (0.1; 0.2)** 3.65 (2.9; 4.4)** 5.29 (3.7; 6.8)**
Screen time (hours per day) 0.06 (0.0; 0.1)* 0.03 (−0.0; 0.1) Not included 0.01 (−0.0; 0.0) Not included Not included Not included
  1. * Association statistically significant at p < 0.05
  2. ** Association statistically significant at p < 0.01