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Table 3 Bivariate linear associations between studied variables and mental-health indicators

From: Family aspects, physical fitness, and physical activity associated with mental-health indicators in adolescents

  Stress Depression Trait anxiety State anxiety Happiness HRQL Subjective wellness
Variables β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Age 0.46 (0.3; 0.6)** 0.08 (− 0.1; 0.2) 0.26 (0.1; 0.4)** 0.14 (0.01; 0.26)* −0.03 (− 0.1; 0.0) −1.41 (−2.0; − 0.9)** −1.80 (−2.7; − 0.9)**
Sex (Ref. Boys) 1.14 (0.7; 1.6)** 1.24 (0.8; 1.6)** 0.82 (0.4; 1.2)** 1.47 (1.11; 1.82)** − 0.06 (− 0.2; 0.1) −6.44 (− 7.8; − 5.0)** −5.24 (− 7.8; − 2.7)**
Location (Ref. Rural) 1.48 (0.8; 2.1)** 1.37 (0.8; 1.9)** 0.07 (− 0.5; 0.6) 0.27 (− 0.22; 0.75) − 0.05 (− 0.2; 0.1) −1.61 (− 3.6; 0.3) − 4.41 (− 7.8; − 1.0)*
Overweight (Ref. Normal) 0.30 (− 0.4; 1.0) 0.24 (− 0.3; 0.8) 0.05 (− 0.5; 0.6) 0.48 (− 0.01; 0.98) 0.07 (− 0.1; 0.2) − 0.53 (− 2.5; 1.5) −3.51 (− 7.0; − 0.0)*
Family Affluence Scale (tertiles) −0.12 (− 0.4; 0.2) 0.22 (− 0.0; 0.5) 0.08 (− 0.2; 0.3) −0.10 (− 0.34; 0.13) −0.03 (− 0.1; 0.1) 0.99 (0.0; 1.9)* 0.57 (− 1.1; 2.3)
Family structure (Ref. Other)        
Single parent −0.98 (− 2.0; 0.0) −0.83 (− 1.6; − 0.0)* −0.35 (− 1.2; 0.5) −0.57 (− 1.3; 0.2) 0.21 (− 0.7; 0.5) 1.95 (− 1.1; 5.0) − 1.02 (− 6.4; 4.3)
Nuclear −1.61 (− 2.5; − 0.7)** − 0.57 (− 1.3; 0.2) − 0.58 (− 1.4; 0.2) − 0.57 (− 1.3; 0.1) 0.11 (− 0.1; 0.4) 3.20 (0.4; 6.0)* 0.66 (−4.3; 5.6)
Family Apgar score −0.13 (− 0.2; − 0.1)** −0.22 (− 0.3; − 0.2)** −0.15 (− 0.2; − 0.1)** −0.14 (− 0.2; − 0.1)** 0.09 (0.1; 0.1)* 1.26 (1.1; 1.4)** 1.83 (1.5; 2.1)**
Physical Fitness (z-score) −0.74 (− 1.1; − 0.4)** −0.25 (− 0.6; 0.1) −0.11 (− 0.4; 0.2) −0.48 (− 0.8; − 0.2)** 0.06 (− 0.0; 0.2) 1.94 (0.8; 3.1)** 1.41 (− 0.6; 3.4)
Physical activity score −0.43 (− 0.7; − 0.1)** −0.61 (− 0.9; − 0.4)** −0.63 (− 0.9; − 0.4)** −0.70 (− 0.9; − 0.5)** 0.20 (0.11; 0.3)** 5.56 (4.7; 6.4)** 7.11 (5.6; 8.6)**
Screen time (hours per day) 0.09 (0.0; 0.1)** 0.06 (0.0; 0.1)** −0.02 (− 0.1; 0.0) 0.03 (− 0.0; 0.1) 0.00 (− 0.0; 0.0) −0.05 (− 0.2; 0.1) −0.09 (− 0.4; 0.2)
  1. * Association statistically significant at p < 0.05
  2. ** Association statistically significant at p < 0.01