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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of males and females across tertiles of wrist circumference

From: Wrist circumference as a novel predictor of transition from metabolically healthy to unhealthy phenotype in overweight/obese adults: a gender-stratified 15.5-year follow-up

  Males Females
Variables Tertile 1
(< 17.5 cm)
Tertile 2
(17.5-18.0 cm)
Tertile 3
(18.0 cm <)
P for trend Tertile 1
(< 15.5 cm)
Tertile 2
(15.5-16.1 cm)
Tertile 3
(16.1 cm <)
P for trend
Wrist circumference, cm 16.95 ± 0.40 17.64 ± 0.14 18.48 ± 0.49 <0.001 14.94 ± 0.43 15.76 ± 0.22 16.71 ± 0.48 <0.001
Age, years 32.69 ± 9.43 34.62 ± 11.54 40.02 ± 14.07 <0.001 34.10 ± 9.67 34.24 ± 10.73 37.73 ± 11.77 <0.001
Smokers, n (%) 27 (28.4) 13 (17.1) 33 (24.3) 0.221 8 (4.1) 10 (2.9) 4 (1.4) 0.192
Low physical activity, n (%) 66 (71.0) 53 (69.7) 91 (66.9) 0.794 119 (62.0) 225 (65.4) 174 (62.4) 0.642
SBP, mmHg 111.24 ± 10.05 112.25 ± 9.88 113.94 ± 9.77 0.114 107.60 ± 11.00 109.19 ± 10.71 111.12 ± 12.21 0.003
DBP, mmHg 73.17 ± 6.60 72.13 ± 6.97 73.87 ± 7.58 0.230 72.18 ± 7.90 73.50 ± 8.37 73.57 ± 7.97 0.130
FPG, mg/dl 87.57 ± 7.74 87.17 ± 6.20 89.82 ± 9.24 0.033 85.67 ± 6.99 86.12 ± 7.02 87.39 ± 14.07 0.135
2-h PG, mg/dl 95.15 ± 25.60 97.13 ± 24.54 99.60 ± 38.24 0.594 99.78 ± 24.78 100.86 ± 23.91 103.27 ± 27.05 0.312
Triglyceridesa, mg/dl 114.00 (87.00-142.00) 112.00 (82.00-133.50) 103.00 (84.50-129.50) 0.103 92.00 (72.00-120.00) 95.00 (75.00-121.00) 98.50 (78.25-122.00) 0.329
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 195.07 ± 32.39 196.05 ± 41.33 191.58 ± 36.74 0.636 191.50 ± 36.91 196.70 ± 39.96 197.56 ± 37.86 0.203
HDL, mg/dL 41.38 ± 9.09 43.84 ± 8.80 44.89 ± 6.95 0.005 48.81 ± 11.32 50.32 ± 12.18 49.95 ± 11.78 0.360
LDL, mg/dL 130.33 ± 27.39 129.88 ± 37.87 125.37 ± 33.44 0.453 122.95 ± 32.55 126.83 ± 35.04 127.65 ± 32.75 0.303
Weight. Kg 74.13 ± 5.66 78.00 ± 6.33 82.57 ± 9.17 <0.001 64.73 ± 5.50 67.90 ± 6.26 72.93 ± 7.83 <0.001
Height, cm 167.96 ± 5.72 170.25 ± 5.60 172.04 ± 6.56 <0.001 154.56 ± 5.40 156.74 ± 5.26 158.98 ± 6.14 <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 26.26 ± 1.15 26.90 ± 1.61 27.89 ± 2.66 <0.001 27.9 ± 1.77 27.65 ± 2.32 28.88 ± 3.07 <0.001
WC, cm 86.54 ± 5.19 89.44 ± 5.56 92.86 ± 8.80 <0.001 81.68 ± 6.09 83.76 ± 6.69 86.96 ± 8.38 <0.001
Hip circumference, cm 96.93 ± 4.02 98.97 ± 3.54 100.68 ± 5.37 <0.001 103.49 ± 5.54 104.60 ± 5.87 107.14 ± 6.81 <0.001
WHR 0.89 ± 0.05 0.90 ± 0.05 0.92 ± 0.67 0.001 0.79 ± 0.06 0.80 ± 0.06 0.81 ± 0.62 0.001
WHtR 0.51 ± 0.03 0.53 ± 0.04 0.54 ± 0.06 <0.001 0.53 ± 0.05 0.53 ± 0.05 0.55 ± 0.05 <0.001
  1. Categorical variables are represented as frequency (percent). Continuous variables are represented as mean ± SD
  2. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FPG fasting plasma glucose, 2-h PG 2-h post-challenge plasma glucose, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio
  3. aTriglycerides is reported as median (IQR 25-75)