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Table 1 Data extraction criteria

From: A critique of the English national policy from a social determinants of health perspective using a realist and problem representation approach: the ‘Childhood Obesity: a plan for action’ (2016, 2018, 2019)

Realist review - Pawson and Tilley [32] Problem representation – Bacchi [33]
Programme theory
o Identification of the programme theory as a basis for understanding the intended policy pathway
What is the ‘problem’ represented to be?
o How does the policy represent the problem under investigation?
o How has this representation come about?
o ‘The problem’ can be inferred from the proposed ‘solution’.
o How (if at all) does the policy conceptualise the social systems in which the policies are being delivered?
Open systems
o How (if at all) are externalities understood, identified and addressed in the policy?
o How (if at all) is agency understood, identified and addressed in the policy?
Assumptions underpinning the representation of the problem
o What are the presuppositions/ assumptions that underlie the representation and its concepts and categories?
Effects of problem representation
o What effects are produced by this representation of the ‘problem’?
Inequalities focus
o How are inequalities addressed in the policy? What inequalities are addressed? How so the proposed pathways to change claim to reduce inequalities?
What is left unproblematic and how might the policy response differ
o What is left unproblematic in this problem representation? Where are the silences?
o Can the ‘problem’ be conceptualized differently?
o What is left out of the problem representation?