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Table 3 Associations between SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and demographics, characteristics of exposure, and behaviors in the 14 days prior to in-school exposure to a COVID-19 case among K–12 students in a school district in Georgia, December 2020–January 2021 (N=560)

From: Prevalence of risk behaviors and correlates of SARS-CoV-2 positivity among in-school contacts of confirmed cases in a Georgia school district in the pre-vaccine era, December 2020–January 2021

  Elementary School Students Middle/High School Students
(+) Contacts N=32 (-) Contacts
N=322
OR (95% CI) P value^ (+) Contacts N=22 (-) Contacts
N=184
OR (95% CI) P value^
Demographics
Gender
 Male 17 (9.6%) 161 (90.4%) 1.1 (0.5-2.3) 0.7 15 (11.9%) 111 (88.1%) 1.4 (0.5-3.6) 0.5
 Female 15 (8.5%) 161 (91.5%) Ref   7 (8.8%) 73 (91.2%) Ref  
Race and ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 6 (11.8%) 45 (88.2%) Ref   3 (4.7%) 61 (95.3%) Ref  
 Non-Hispanic Black 7 (7.9%) 82 (92.1%) 0.6 (0.2-2.0) 0.4 12 (18.2%) 54 (81.8%) 4.5 (1.2-16.9) 0.03
 Hispanic or Latino/a 17 (8.4%) 186 (91.6%) 0.7 (0.3-1.8) 0.5 7 (10.0%) 63 (90.0%) 2.3 (0.6-9.1) 0.3
 Other race/ethnicitya 2 (18.2%) 9 (81.8%) 1.7 (0.3-9.6) 0.6 0 (0.0%) 6 (100.0%) - 1.0
Characterstics Of Exposure
Index case role in school
 Staff 24 (14.0%) 148 (86.0%) 3.5 (1.5-8.1) 0.002 3 (8.8%) 31 (91.2%) 0.8 (0.2-2.8) 1.0
 Student 8 (4.4%) 174 (95.6%) Ref   19 (11.1%) 153 (88.9%) Ref  
Reported primary exposure locationb
 Classroom/educational settingc 28 (9.8%) 258 (90.2%) Ref   8 (6.3%) 120 (93.7%) Ref  
 Bus 4 (6.0%) 63 (94.0%) 0.6 (0.2-1.7) 0.5 1 (4.0%) 24 (96.0%) 0.6 (0.1-5.2) 1.0
 Sports 0 (0.0%) 1 (100.0%) - 1.0 13 (26.5%) 36 (73.5%) 5.4 (2.1-14.1) 0.0002
Concurrent exposure in school
 Concurrently exposed to ≥1 case in school 2 (10.5%) 17 (89.5%) 1.2 (0.3-5.4) 0.7 1 (25.0%) 3 (75.0%) 2.9 (0.3-28.9) 0.4
 Exposed to 1 case in school 30 (9.0%) 305 (91.0%) Ref   21 (10.4%) 181 (89.6%) Ref  
In-School Behaviors
Transportation to/from school
 Ever took bus 19 (8.2%) 214 (91.8%) 0.7 (0.4-1.5) 0.4 12 (10.8%) 99 (89.2%) 1.0 (0.4-2.5) 0.9
 Never took bus 13 (10.7%) 108 (89.3%) Ref   10 (10.5%) 85 (89.5%) Ref  
Participation in sports at school
 Any sports participation 5 (35.7%) 9 (64.3%) 6.4 (2.0-20.5) 0.0004 15 (17.7%) 70 (82.3%) 3.5 (1.4-9.0) 0.007
 No sports participation 27 (8.0%) 312 (92.0%) Ref   7 (5.8%) 114 (94.2%) Ref  
Participation in non-sports extracurriculars
 Any non-sports extracurricular activitiesd 3 (11.5%) 23 (88.5%) 1.3 (0.4-4.7) 0.7 1 (5.9%) 16 (94.1%) 0.5 (0.1-4.0) 1.0
 No non-sports extracurricular activities 29 (8.9%) 298 (91.1%) Ref   21 (11.1%) 168 (88.9%) Ref  
Mask use in school
 Any unmasked time in school 20 (10.3%) 175 (89.7%) 1.4 (0.7-2.9) 0.4 10 (10.6%) 84 (89.4%) 1.1 (0.4-2.7) 0.9
 No unmasked time in school 12 (7.6%) 146 (92.4%) Ref   10 (9.9%) 91 (90.1%) Ref  
 Any unmasked time in school indoors 10 (11.8%) 75 (88.2%) 1.5 (0.7-3.3) 0.3 8 (11.9%) 59 (88.1%) 1.3 (0.5-3.4) 0.6
 No unmasked time in school indoors 22 (8.2%) 246 (91.8%) Ref   12 (9.4%) 116 (90.6%) Ref  
 Any unmasked time in school outdoors 17 (10.5%) 145 (89.5%) 1.5 (0.7-3.3) 0.3 3 (5.8%) 49 (94.2%) 0.4 (0.1-1.6) 0.3
 No unmasked time in school outdoors 10 (7.4%) 126 (92.6%) Ref   8 (12.9%) 54 (87.1%) Ref  
Mask use in school sports
 Any unmasked time in school sports 4 (44.4%) 5 (55.6%) 9.0 (2.3-35.5) 0.005 15 (20.3%) 59 (79.7%) 4.3 (1.7-11.3) 0.001
 No unmasked time in school sportse 28 (8.1%) 316 (91.9%) Ref   7 (5.5%) 120 (94.5%) Ref  
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  2. ^chi-squared or Fisher Exact Test P value
  3. aIncludes participants who reported Asian or American Indian/Alaska Native identity, or unknown
  4. bThe school district assigned each contact a single predominant location for exposure
  5. cClassroom, tutoring, after-school care, lunch
  6. dExtracurricular activities included after-school care, dance, band, choir, tutoring, drama club, theater
  7. eDenominator includes students who did not play sports and student who always wore a mask during sport