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Table 3 Distribution of sociodemographic factors, access to social support and parental and child health in relation to low, middle, and high levels of HL

From: Psychometric qualities of the HLS-EU-Q16 instrument for parental health literacy in Swedish multicultural settings

Sociodemographic Characteristics Low HL Middle HL High HL Kruskal-Wallis/X2
Parental age (Mean) 30.5 31.0 28.8 2.084 p = .353
Country/region of birth (%)     52.339 p < .001
 Sweden 6.8 25.0 68.2  
 Europe 50.0 42.9 7.1  
 Middle East 35.3 55.9 8.8  
 Africa 37.3 39.2 23.5  
 Asia 50.0 40.0 10.0  
 North America/South America* * * *  
Years in Sweden (Mean) 7.4 10.7 21.6 36.405 p < .001
Need for an interpreter (%)     24.157 p < .001
 Interpreter 52.3 45.5 2.3  
 No need for an interpreter 33.3 37.5 39.2  
 Education (yrs.) (Mean) 11.1 13.1 14.7 15.844 p < .001
Access to social support (%)     11.895 p = .018
 Always 30.5 35.6 33.9  
 Most of the time 37.5 37.5 25.0  
 Never/mostly not 21.4 78.6 0.0  
Parental health (%)     5.473 p = .242
 Excellent/good 28.7 41.2 30.1  
 Average 35.7 39.3 25.0  
 Poor/Very poor * * *  
Child health (%)     1.9036 p = .386
 Excellent/good 31.6 38.6 29.7  
 Average 16.7 66.7 16.7  
 Poor/very poor * * *  
  1. *Not displayed as N < 5