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Table 1 Definitions of the control variables

From: The effects of smoking, regular drinking, and unhealthy weight on health care utilization in China

Variable Description
Age group
 16–24 Coded 1 if the individual is 16–24 years old and 0 otherwise
 25–64 Coded 1 if the individual is 25–64 years old and 0 otherwise
  > =65 Coded 1 if the individual is > = 65 years old and otherwise
Male Coded 1 if the individual is male and 0 if female
Educational attainment
 Illiteracy Coded 1 if the individual is illiterate or semiliterate and 0 otherwise
 Elementary school Coded 1 if the individual attended elementary school and 0 otherwise
 Middle school Coded 1 if the individual graduated from middle school and 0 otherwise
 High school Coded 1 if the individual graduated from high school and 0 otherwise
 Above high school Coded 1 if the individual graduated from above high school and 0 otherwise
Married Coded 1 if the individual is married and 0 otherwise
Urban residency Coded 1 if the individual is an urban resident and 0 if a rural resident
Medical insurance coverage Coded 1 if the individual is enrolled in a medical insurance scheme and 0 otherwise
Household income Net household income (10,000 yuan); the CFPS measured comparable household income between 2010 to 2018
Employed Coded 1 if the individual reported participating in an agricultural job, working for wages for an employer, or working for oneself rather than an employer; coded 0 if the individual reported being a temporary worker, retired, unemployed, or a student;
Health status
 Poor Coded 1 if the individual reported his or her health status as being poor and 0 otherwise
 Fair Coded 1 if the individual reported his or her health status as being fair and 0 otherwise
 Good Coded 1 if the individual reported his or her heath status as being good, very good, or excellent and 0 otherwise
 Chronic diseases Coded 1 if the individual has had doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases in the past 6 months and 0 otherwise
  1. Note: 1000 yuan is equal to approximately $150 USD