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Table 1 Distribution of socio-demographic characteristics and oral health-related behaviors in children aged 12 years in China in 2005 and 2015 surveys

From: Trend on dental caries status and its risk indicators in children aged 12 years in China: a multilevel analysis based on the repeated national cross-sectional surveys in 2005 and 2015

  2005 2015 Total
(n = 12350) (n= 27818) (n = 40168)
Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %
Level-1 (individual) indicators
Sex
Male 6330 51.26 13840 49.75 20170 50.21
Female 6020 48.74 13978 50.25 19998 49.79
Ethnicity
Han 10963 88.77 24333 87.47 35296 87.87
Other 1387 11.23 3485 12.53 4872 12.13
Location of residence *
Urban 5987 48.48 11522 41.42 17509 43.59
Rural 6363 51.52 16296 58.58 22659 56.41
Only child *
Yes 5585 45.26 10009 35.99 15594 38.84
No 6755 54.74 17805 64.01 24560 61.16
Parental highest education attainment *
Junior high school or below 1721 13.94 3306 11.88 5027 12.52
High school 7935 64.27 16421 59.03 24356 60.64
Tertiary or bachelor degree or above 2169 17.57 5335 19.18 7504 18.68
Unknown or orphan 521 4.22 2756 9.91 3277 8.16
Toothbrushing frequency
Twice or more per day 3500 28.35 8879 31.93 12379 30.83
Once a day or less 8846 71.65 18933 68.07 27779 69.17
Use of dental floss *
No or do not know 11436 92.73 25146 90.41 36582 91.12
Yes 897 7.27 2666 9.59 3563 8.88
Frequency of toothache within the past 12 months *
Often 406 3.3 826 2.97 1232 3.07
Occasionally 5318 43.17 14518 52.19 19836 49.42
Never 4509 36.6 9226 33.17 13735 34.22
Can't remember 2086 16.93 3245 11.67 5331 13.28
Time of last dental visit *
Within 6 months 1235 10.01 3645 13.1 4880 12.15
Within 6 to 12 months 1301 10.55 3704 13.32 5005 12.47
More than 12 months 3946 31.99 7432 26.72 11378 28.34
Never 5853 47.45 13035 46.86 18888 47.04
Dental fluorosis
Yes 2264 18.37 5751 20.92 8015 20.13
No 10060 81.63 21741 79.08 31801 79.87
Frequency of sweet snack intake *
Occasionally/ never 2853 23.1 7296 26.23 10149 25.27
Less than 2 times per week 4500 36.44 10946 39.35 15446 38.46
2 to 6 times per week 1924 15.58 5178 18.61 7102 17.68
More than 6 times per week 3071 24.87 4398 15.81 7469 18.6
Level-2 (province) indicators
Economic development
GDP per capita, quartile 1 2876 23.29 7270 26.13 10146 25.26
GDP per capita, quartile 2 2935 23.77 6093 21.9 9028 22.48
GDP per capita, quartile 3 3350 27.13 7093 25.5 10443 26
GDP per capita, quartile 4 3189 25.82 7362 26.46 10551 26.27
Region
North China 1970 15.95 4473 16.08 6443 16.04
Northeast China 1184 9.59 2584 9.29 3768 9.38
East China 2916 23.61 6536 23.5 9452 23.53
Middlesouth (Central) China 2694 21.81 5188 18.65 7882 19.62
Southwest China 1549 12.54 4562 16.4 6111 15.21
Northwest China 2037 16.49 4475 16.09 6512 16.21
  1. GDP = Gross domestic product (per CNY 10,000)
  2. * p-values were less than 0.05 calculated using Rao-Scott χ2 test considering clustering