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Table 2 Association of sociodemographic variables with spousal coercive control for 66, 013 ever-married women aged 15–49 years India, 2015–16

From: Predictors of spousal coercive control and its association with intimate partner violence evidence from National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-2016) India

  Coercive control
  No Yes   
  N (%) N (%) OR [95% CI] aOR1 [95% CI]
Marital status
 Currently married 32860 (52) 29856 (48) 1 1
 Widowed/Separated/Divorced   1705 (52)   1592 (48) 1.0 [1.0, 1.1] 1.0 [0.9 , 1.0]
Age (years)
 15–24   5032 (48)   5457 (52) 1 1
 25–34 14258 (52) 13310 (48) 0.9 [0.8, 0.9] 0.8 [0.8 , 0.9]
 35–49 15275 (55) 12681 (45) 0.8 [0.7, 0.8] 0.7 [0.6 , 0.7]
Number of living children
 0   3081 (50)   3055 (50) 1 1
 1   7023 (56)   5587 (44) 0.8 [0.8, 0.9] 0.9 [0.8 , 0.9]
 2 12587 (55) 10255 (45) 0.8 [0.8, 0.9] 0.9 [0.9, 1.0]
 3+ 11874 (49) 12551 (51) 1.1 [1.0, 1.1] 1.1 [1.0, 1.2]
Educational
 No education 10044 (46) 11984 (54) 1 1
 Primary   4966 (51)   4703 (49) 0.8 [0.8, 0.8] 0.9 [0.8 , 0.9]
 Secondary 15785 (56) 12402 (44) 0.7 [0.6, 0.7] 0.8 [0.8 , 0.8]
 Higher   3770 (62)   2359 (39) 0.5 [0.5, 0.6] 0.7 [0.6 , 0.8]
Women’s employment
 Not working 26368 (53) 22987 (47) 1 1
 Currently working   8197 (49)   8461 (51) 1.2 [1.1, 1.2] 1.1 [1.1, 1.2]
Husband educational
 No education   5935 (46)   6841 (54) 1 1
 Primary   4919 (50)   4935 (50) 0.9 [0.8, 0.9] 1.0 [0.9, 1.0]
 Secondary 18593 (54) 16004 (46) 0.7 [0.7, 0.8] 1.0 [1.0, 1.1]
 Higher   5015 (59)   3564 (42) 0.6 [0.6, 0.7] 1.1 [1.1, 1.2]
Husband’s occupation
 Not employed   1304 (49)   1370 (51) 1 1
 Non-agriculture 11716 (56)   9133 (44) 0.7 [0.7, 0.8] 0.9 [0.8 , 1.0]
 Agriculture 11387 (51) 10976 (49) 0.9 [0.8, 1.0] 0.9 [0.8 , 0.9]
 Skilled and unskilled manual  9789 (51)   9610 (49) 0.9 [0.9, 1.0] 0.9 [0.8 , 1.0]
Husband consume alcohol
 No 25508 (57) 19614 (43) 1 1
 Yes 9057 (43) 11834 (57) 1.7 [1.6, 1.8] 1.7 [1.6 , 1.7]
Caste
 Scheduled caste 5430 (47) 6256 (53) 1 1
 Scheduled tribe 6896 (57) 5212 (43) 0.7 [0.6, 0.7] 0.7 [0.6, 0.7]
 Other backward caste 12548 (49) 13026 (51) 0.9 [0.9, 0.9] 1.0 [1.0, 1.1]
 General caste 7724 (57) 5725 (43) 0.6 [0.6, 0.7] 0.9 [0.8, 0.9]
Religion
 Hindu 24903 (50) 24643 (50) 1 1
 Muslim 4733 (55) 3881 (45) 0.8 [0.8, 0.9] 1.0 [1.0 , 1.1]
 Other religion 4905 (63) 2909 (37) 0.6 [0.6, 0.6] 0.7 [0.7 , 0.8]
Wealth index
 Poorest 5201 (41) 7637 (60) 1 1
 Poorer 6954 (50) 7038 (50) 0.7 [0.7, 0.7] 0.7 [0.7 , 0.8]
 Middle 7405 (54) 6385 (46) 0.6 [0.6, 0.6] 0.7 [0.6 , 0.7]
 Richer 7549 (57) 5593 (43) 0.5 [0.5, 0.5] 0.6 [0.6 , 0.6]
 Richest 7456 (61) 4795 (39) 0.4 [0.4, 0.5] 0.6 [0.5 , 0.6]
Place of residence
 Urban 11027 (57) 8442 (43) 1 1
 Rural 23538 (51) 23006 (49) 1.3 [1.2, 1.3] 1.0 [1.0 , 1.0]
  1. OR crude odds ratio for coercive control, aOR adjusted odds ratio for coercive control, including all covariates in the table