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Table 6 Estimated contributions of change in difference of urban poor and non-poor mean variable levels overtime to change in HAZ gap (2000-2018)

From: Understanding urban inequalities in children’s linear growth outcomes: a trend and decomposition analysis of 39,049 children in Bangladesh (2000-2018)

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Variable Baseline levels among urban poor, 2000 (%) Baseline levels among urban non-poor, 2000 (%) Endline levels among urban poor, 2018 (%) Endline levels among urban non-poor, 2018 (%) Variable change among urban poor, (% points, 2018-2000) Variable change among urban non-poor (% points, 2018-2000) Difference in urban poor and non-poor variable change (% points) Estimated association of factor with HAZ in pooled urban sample Predicted change in HAZ gap due to difference in urban poor and non-poor variable change (7*8) Contribution of difference in urban poor and non-poor variable change to difference in urban poor and non-poor HAZ gap change [0.31 SD] (2000-2018) (%)
N (weighted) 348 544 424 1647  
Mean HAZ (observed) -2.17(SD) -1.42 (SD) -1.49 (SD) -1.05 (SD) 0.68 (SD) 0.37 (SD) 0.31 (SD)   100%
Child’s age (months)
 0-11 19.75 18.44 22.79 19.84 3.04 1.40 1.64 Ref. - -
 12-23 22.16 20.53 20.74 19.86 -1.42 -0.67 -0.75 -0.714*** 0.005 1.61
 24-59 58.08 61.03 56.48 60.29 -1.60 -0.74 -2.34 -0.810*** 0.019 6.13
 Child’s sex (female) 49.41 46.96 48.08 49.27 -1.33 2.31 -3.64 0.054* -0.002 -0.63
 Maternal education (no/ primary education) 88.23 40.89 53.57 27.88 -34.66 -13.01 -21.65 -0.213*** 0.046 14.84
 Maternal autonomy level (low level) 39.52 28.60 23.52 19.52 -16.00 -9.08 -6.92 -0.071* 0.005 1.61
 Maternal media exposure
(not at all)
34.69 9.29 52.71 9.71 18.02 0.42 17.60 0.026 0.005 1.61
Maternal BMI
 Normal 53.56 61.29 61.50 48.71 7.94 -12.58 20.52 Ref. - -
 Underweight 44.25 19.56 17.98 9.74 -26.27 -9.82 -16.45 -0.272*** 0.045 14.52
 Overweight 2.19 19.15 20.52 41.56 18.33 22.41 -4.08 0.234*** -0.010 -3.23
Maternal Stature
 Normal/tall (155-<200cm) 17.26 23.55 16.39 23.95 -0.87 0.40 -1.27 Ref. - -
 Short (<155cm) 62.19 63.67 66.69 64.72 4.50 1.05 3.45 -0.497*** -0.017 -5.48
 Very short (<145cm) 20.55 12.78 16.92 11.33 -3.63 -1.45 -2.18 -1.016*** 0.022 7.10
 Maternal age at first child’s birth (≤ 17 years) 65.30 38.17 50.45 32.81 -14.85 -5.36 -9.49 -0.071** 0.007 2.26
 No. children living with mother (≥4) 21.80 15.84 10.18 5.01 -11.62 -10.83 -0.79 -0.142** 0.001 0.32
 Child’s place of delivery (home) 92.97 61.52 66.59 29.10 -26.38 -32.42 6.04 -0.209*** -0.013 -4.19
 Child not vaccinated (measles) 24.95 12.13 11.54 8.57 -13.41 -3.56 -9.85 -0.239*** 0.024 7.74
 Household toilet type (not improved) 62.89 28.21 49.72 33.14 -13.17 4.93 -18.1 -0.030 0.005 1.61
 Household drinking water source (not improved) 1.71 0.69 3.13 0.56 1.42 -0.13 1.55 0.222^ 0.003 0.97
Division
 Others 41.27 29.84 54.40 30.49 13.13 0.65 12.48 Ref. - -
 Dhaka 29.69 49.56 14.73 52.56 -14.96 3.00 -17.96 -0.096* 0.017 5.48
 Chittagong 29.04 20.59 30.87 16.95 1.83 -3.64 5.47 -0.132** -0.007 -2.26
Household size (≥7 members) 29.91 46.72 25.99 26.61 -3.92 -20.11 16.19 -0.003 -0.001 -0.32
National wealth index
 Richest - 87.34 - 55.13 - -32.21 32.21 Ref. - -
 Richer 19.11 12.66 - 35.53 -19.11 22.87 -41.98 -0.205*** 0.086 27.74
 Middle 34.57 - 23.57 9.34 -11.00 9.34 -20.34 -0.192** 0.039 12.58
 Poorer 28.31 - 32.07 - 3.76 - 3.76 -0.221** -0.008 -2.58
 Poorest 18.01 - 44.36 - 26.35 - 26.35 -0.379*** -0.100 -32.26
Total   0.171 55.19%
  1. Notes: HAZ: height-for-age z-score; SD: standard deviation; ^p ≤0.1; *p ≤0.05; ** p ≤0.01; *** p ≤0.001
  2. Columns 5 and 6 show the percentage point changes in mean variable levels among urban poor and non-poor, respectively, during this period. The predicted change in HAZ gap, due to the change in mean variable levels, in column 9 was obtained by multiplying the difference in urban poor and non-poor variable change (column 7) with the relevant factor coefficient from Table 5 (column 8). Column 10 shows the predicted change in HAZ gap, due to the gap change in each variable, as percentage share of the total observed change in HAZ gap (0.31 SDs)