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Table 4 Independent predictors of childhood stunting: adjusted estimates at national level and by urban-rural residence

From: Understanding urban inequalities in children’s linear growth outcomes: a trend and decomposition analysis of 39,049 children in Bangladesh (2000-2018)

Stunting OR (95% CI)
N (unweighted) National (N=30463) Urban Residence(N=9425) Rural Residence (N=21038)
Predictors
Child’s Background
Sex
  Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Female 0.92 (0.88,0.97)** 0.89 (0.81,0.98)** 0.94 (0.89,1.00)^
Age (months)
  0-11 1.00 1.00 1.00
  12-23 3.26 (3.00,3.55)*** 3.12 (2.65,3.67)*** 3.34 (3.02,3.68)***
  24-59 3.76 (3.48,4.07)*** 3.17 (2.74,3.67)*** 4.07 (3.71,4.47)***
Birth Order
  1 to 2 1.00 1.00 1.00
  3 or higher 0.89 (0.77,1.02)^ 0.97 (0.74,1.28) 0.88 (0.75,1.03)^
Place of birth
  Health facility 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Home 1.28 (1.19,1.38)*** 1.38 (1.22,1.56)*** 1.18 (1.07,1.29)***
Vaccinated (measles)
  Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00
  No 1.22 (1.13,1.32)*** 1.34 (1.16,1.54)*** 1.17 (1.07,1.29)***
Mother’s Background
Age at first marriage
  18 years or older 1.00 1.00 1.00
  17 years or younger 1.04 (0.97,1.13) 1.25 (1.08,1.44)** 0.94 (0.86,1.03)
Age at first child’s birth
  18 years or older 1.00 1.00 1.00
  17 years or younger 1.04 (0.98,1.11) 0.98 (0.87,1.11) 1.06 (0.99,1.14)^
Highest education level
  Secondary or higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
  No education/ Primary only 1.21 (1.13,1.29)*** 1.34 (1.19,1.50)*** 1.13 (1.04,1.21)**
'Media exposure
  Some 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Not at all 1.08 (1.02,1.15)** 0.96 (0.84,1.11) 1.12 (1.05,1.20)***
Marital status
  Married 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Widowed/divorced/separated 0.95 (0.74,1.23) 1.27 (0.82,1.96) 0.83 (0.61,1.12)
Total no. children living with mother
  3 or less 1.00 1.00 1.00
  4 or more 1.13 (1.01,1.26)* 1.11 (0.87,1.41) 1.12 (0.99,1.28)^
Total children ever born
  1 to 2 1.00 1.00 1.00
  3 1.07 (0.93,1.23) 1.00 (0.76,1.30) 1.08 (0.92,1.27)
  4 or more 1.18 (0.99,1.40)^ 1.28 (0.91,1.80) 1.14 (0.94,1.39)
Current contraception use
  Not currently using 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Currently using (any method) 0.99 (0.93,1.05) 1.08 (0.96,1.21) 0.96 (0.89,1.02)
Maternal stature
  Normal/Tall (155 to <200 cm) 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Short (145 to <155 cm) 2.14 (2.00,2.29)*** 2.31 (2.03,2.62)*** 2.07 (1.92,2.24)***
  Very short (<145 cm) 4.70 (4.29,5.14)*** 5.38 (4.56,6.35)*** 4.44 (3.98,4.95)***
Body Mass Index
  Normal (18.5 to <25) 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Underweight (<18.5) 1.30 (1.22,1.38)*** 1.47 (1.31,1.64)*** 1.25 (1.16,1.33)***
  Overweight (≥25) 0.71 (0.65,0.78)*** 0.74 (0.65,0.86)*** 0.71 (0.62,0.80)***
Worked in last 12 months
  No 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes 0.99 (0.92,1.06) 1.06 (0.94,1.19) 0.95 (0.88,1.03)
Level of autonomy
  Low 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Average-high 0.95 (0.90,1.00)* 0.90 (0.81,1.00)* 0.96 (0.91,1.02)
Household Background
National Wealth Index
  Poor 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Poorer 0.87 (0.81,0.95)*** 0.86 (0.71,1.05) 0.86 (0.78,0.93)***
  Middle 0.79 (0.73,0.86)*** 0.73 (0.60,0.88)*** 0.78 (0.71,0.85)***
  Richer 0.69 (0.63,0.76)*** 0.68 (0.57,0.83)*** 0.63 (0.57,0.71)***
  Richest 0.47 (0.42,0.53)*** 0.48 (0.39,0.58)*** 0.43 (0.37,0.51)***
Residence
  Urban 1.00   
  Rural 0.93(0.87,1.00)^ - -
Division
  Dhaka 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Chittagong 1.07(0.97,1.18) 0.97(0.81,1.15) 1.13 (1.01,1.26)*
  Others 0.90 (0.83,0.97)** 0.78 (0.68,0.89)*** 1.00(0.88,1.06)
Household size
  1 to 6 1.00 1.00 1.00
  7 or more 1.07 (1.01,1.14)* 1.03 (0.92,1.15) 1.10 (1.03,1.19)**
Household head
  Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Female 0.93 (0.84,1.02) 0.89 (0.73,1.08) 0.95 (0.84,1.06)
Type of toilet facility
  Improved 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Non-improved 1.12 (1.05,1.19)*** 1.03 (0.93,1.16) 1.15 (1.06,1.24)***
Source of drinking water
  Improved 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Non-improved 1.24 (1.06,1.44)** 0.80 (0.56,1.16) 1.30 (1.10,1.54)**
  1. Notes: Model accounts for survey fixed effects and standard errors clustered at the survey-cluster level
  2. ^p ≤0.1; *p ≤0.05; ** p ≤0.01; *** p ≤0.001