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Table 3 Background characteristics of rural, urban poor, and urban non-poor children (0-59 months) in pooled sample

From: Understanding urban inequalities in children’s linear growth outcomes: a trend and decomposition analysis of 39,049 children in Bangladesh (2000-2018)

  Rural Urban Poor Urban Non-Poor p-value
Child Background
 Male N=30603
51.0%
N=2207
51.4%
N=6542
51.5%
0.698
 Mean age (in months) N=30603
29.4
N=2207
28.9
N=6542
29.7
0.194
 Birth order: First born N=30603
32.7%
N=2207
31.1%
N=6542
41.3%
<0.001
 Place of birth: At home N=26286
82.1%
N=1931
84.0%
N=5276
48.2%
<0.001
 Perceived size at birth: Very small/ smaller than averagea N=13781
18.4%
N=970
22.4%
N=2732
15.7%
<0.001
 Dewormed in last 6 months (age 6-59 months)b N=15453
44.5%
N=1048
47.4%
N=3976
47.7%
0.025
 Vaccinated for measles (0-59 months)e N=28419
84.6%
N=2055
82.4%
N=5863
89.4%
 <0.001
 Sought medical help when ill with diarrheaf N=1947
31.3%
N=149
30.8%
N=373
50.0%
<0.001
 Sought medical help when ill with fever/ coughf N=13895
29.9%
N=1049
31.3%
N=2694
44.8%
<0.001
Mother’s Background
 Mean current age (years) N=30603
25.57
N=2207
25.26
N=6542
26.01
<0.001
 Mean age at first marriage (years) N=30603
15.49
N=2207
15.10
N=6542
16.91
<0.001
 Mean age at first child’s birth (years) N=30603
17.71
N=2207
17.25
N=6542
19.12
<0.001
 Divorced/widowed/separated N=30603
1.5%
N=2207
2.6%
N=6542
1.6%
0.002
 Non-Muslim N=30599
8.7%
N=2207
9.5%
N=6540
8.3%
0.724
 Maternal education: N=30603 N=2207 N=6541 <0.001
  No education 26.1% 33.2% 11.2%
  Secondary or higher 43.2% 28.5% 66.4%
 No media exposure N=30597
44.2%
N=2205
40.7%
N=6540
7.3%
<0.001
 Mean number of total children ever born N=30603
2.72
N=2207
2.75
N=6542
2.17
<0.001
 Currently using contraception (any method) N=30603
59.5%
N=2207
63.6%
N=6542
74.0%
<0.001
 4 or more number of children living with mother N=30560
17.2%
N=2205
17.4%
N=6532
8.2%
<0.001
 Very short (<145 cm) maternal stature N=30567
14.2%
N=2204
17.9%
N=6540
11.4%
<0.001
 Underweight (<18.5) Body Mass Indexg N=28850
31.6%
N=2087
33.6%
N=6306
14.7%
<0.001
 Worked in last 12 months N=30603
24.8%
N=2207
32.5%
N=6541
21.3%
<0.001
 Unskilled laborerh N=7492
75.9%
N=711
75.5%
N=1368
35.9%
<0.001
 Low level of autonomy N=30349
37.6%
N=2174
33.1%
N=6473
26.9%
<0.001
 No antenatal care visit (most recent live birth): N=22451
39.6%
N=1656
36.6%
N=4,803
12.2%
<0.001
 No postnatal check within 2 months of birth (most recent live birth):b N=11616
45.9%
N=816
45.3%
N=2,984
28.4%
<0.001
Household Background
 Average national wealth indexi N=30603
2.56
N=2207
2.13
N=6542
4.60
<0.001
 Dhaka Division N=30603
26.7%
N=2207
25.9%
N=6542
51.4%
<0.001
 Average household size N=30603
6.3
N=2207
5.7
N=6542
6.1
<0.001
 Female headed N=30603
9.1%
N=2207
6.9%
N=6542
8.5%
0.023
 Has improved toiletj N=28369
41.6%
N=2067
40.2%
N=6131
70.7%
<0.001
 Shares toilet with other householdsc N=18021
36.6%
N=1345
52.9%
N=4746
44.1%
<0.001
 Has improved source of drinking waterj N=28357
97.1%
N=2067
97.9%
N=6133
99.6%
<0.001
 Has water source located ‘elsewhere’ (not in own dwelling/yard/plot)b N=16865
26.9%
N=1151
34.2%
N=2987
18.9%
<0.001
 Has handwashing place observed in dwellingc N=17096
91.1%
N=1,171
91.1%
N=4404
98.6%
<0.001
 Cooks with solid fuelsd N=23348
96.9%
N=1,698
98.1%
N=5496
40.9%
<0.001
  1. Notes: Weighted means and percentages; sample includes live children with valid anthropometirc data and excludes missing values. Chi-square test (for categorical variables) and Adjusted Wald test (for continuos variables) were used to assess statistical significant differences (p-values) across subgroups
  2. aVariable not collected in 2004 and 2018 waves. bVariable not collected in 2000, 2004 and 2007 waves. cVariable not collected in 2000 and 2004 waves. dVariable not collected in 2000 wave. eChildren that received measles vaccination at any time before survey, with sources both from immunization card and recall; children 8 months or younger were counted as having received measles vaccination (as the vaccine is typically given only after 9 months of age). fAmong children having an episode in last 2 weeks of interview. gExcludes pregnant women. hAmong working mothers. iNational wealth quintiles scaled from 1 (poorest) to 5 (richest). jExcludes non de-jure residents