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Table 3 Intersectionality between preferred language and race and preferred language and geography for COVID-19 patients in the Western U.S. in 2020

From: Major disparities in COVID-19 test positivity for patients with non-English preferred language even after accounting for race and social factors in the United States in 2020

  Model D Model E
ORa 95% CI p-value ORb 95% CI p-value
Race/Ethnicity
 Asian 1.45 1.17, 1.79 0.0006    
 Black/African American 3.08 2.12, 4.48 < 0.001    
 Hispanic 2.3 2.12, 2.50 < 0.001    
 Multiracial 2.44 1.53, 3.88 0.0002    
 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 2.67 1.64, 4.36 < 0.001    
 Other 1.86 1.48, 2.34 < 0.001    
 White 2.57 1.91, 2.67 < 0.001    
State
 California     1.84 1.69, 2.00 < 0.001
 Oregon     3.04 2.57, 3.60 < 0.0001
 Washington     2.8 2.52, 3.13 < 0.001
  1. aOR comparing COVID-19 test positivity between people who prefer English (ref) and people whose preferred language is not English. Results stratified by race/ethnicity and adjusting for age, SVI Domain: Socioeconomic, SVI Domain: Housing/Transportation, and clustering of patients within states
  2. bOR comparing COVID-19 test positivity between people who prefer English (ref) and people whose preferred language is not English stratified by state and adjusting for age, SVI Domain: Socioeconomic, and SVI Domain: Housing/Transportation, and clustering of patients within states