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Table 4 Associations between disclosure of same-sex practices and healthcare stigma among MSM in SSA (by country), 2014–2016 (N = 3040)

From: Disclosure of same-sex practices and experiences of healthcare stigma among cisgender men who have sex with men in five sub-Saharan African countries

  Afraid to seek health services Avoided seeking health services Gossiped about by healthcare providers Felt mistreated in a health center
  OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Same-sex practices disclosure
 Not to a FM or a HCW (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Côte d’Ivoire
 To a FM only 0.99 (0.67, 1.47) 0.95 (0.88, 2.64) 1.23 (0.78, 1.94) 1.19 (0.74, 1.89) 1.84* (1.09, 3.11) 1.79* (1.05, 3.04) 1.80 (0.69, 4.70) 1.75 (0.66, 4.63)
 To a HCW only 1.73* (1.03, 2.90) 1.52 (0.88, 2.64) 1.96* (1.09, 3.52) 1.75 ~ (0.93, 3.30) 0.73 (0.25, 2.10) 0.58 (0.20, 1.74) 0.67 (0.09, 5.27) 0.31 (0.03, 3.15)
 To a family and a HCW 1.37 (0.69, 2.71) 1.25 (0.61, 2.55) 1.26 (0.54, 2.91) 1.19 (0.49, 2.88) 3.68*** (2.26, 9.70) 4.16*** (1.93, 8.99) 6.25** (2.08, 18.80) 3.96* (1.17, 13.39)
Cameroon
 To a FM only 1.73 ~ (0.96, 3.12) 1.55 (0.85, 2.83) 1.18 (0.62, 2.23) 1.06 (0.55, 2.04) 1.87 (0.85, 4.14) 2.07 ~ (0.91, 4.71) 3.22* (1.29, 8.04) 3.53* (1.36, 9.19)
 To a HCW only 6.78*** (2.40, 19.14) 5.59** (1.88, 16.57) 6.22** (2.21, 17.50) 4.84** (1.64, 14.28) 5.80** (1.56, 21.58) 3.62 ~ (0.89, 14.65) 7.03* (1.45, 34.22) 4.40 (0.74, 26.15)
 To a FM and a HCW 5.26*** (2.45, 11.29) 4.37** (1.87, 10.19) 3.15** (1.37, 7.23) 2.25 ~ (0.90, 5.61) 4.23** (1.51, 11.84) 2.30 (0.73, 7.31) 4.65* (1.25, 17.27) 3.78 ~ (0.83, 17.30)
  1. ~p < 0.10; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; significant, adjusted associations are also bolded
  2. MSM, men who have sex with men; SSA, sub-Saharan Africa; OR, odds ratio; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; FM, family member; HCW, healthcare worker
  3. Controlling for age, education, income, HIV status, and depression